Appendix D
Energy Conversion

ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

From one:

To:

EJ

Btce

Btoe

Tcm NG

Quad

Exajoule

EJ

1.000

0.033

0.022

0.025

0.948

Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2]

Btce

30.300

1.000

0.675

0.761

28.720

Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3]

Btoe

44.900

1.482

1.000

1.128

42.559

Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4]

Tcm NG

39.800

1.314

0.886

1.000

37.725

Quadrillion Btu

Quad

1.055

0.035

0.023

0.027

1.000

[1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values.

[2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat).

[3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values.

[4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.

ABBREVIATIONS

Quad= quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu)

mtce = million ton of coal equivalent

mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent

bpd = barrels of oil per day



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 365
Appendix D Energy Conversion ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 EJ Billion metric tons coal 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Btce equivalent [2] Billion metric tons oil 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Btoe equivalent [3] Trillion cubic meters natural 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Tcm NG gas [4] Quadrillion Btu 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 Quad [1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. ABBREVIATIONS (1015) Quad = quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) mtce = million ton of coal equivalent mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent bpd = barrels of oil per day 

OCR for page 365
 APPENDIx D One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil One short ton (2000 lb.) = 0.907 metric tons One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters One kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J. One million barrels of oil per day = 2.24 EJ per year Adapted from NRC, Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States, 000.