A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE AT THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Committee on Research Priorities for the USGS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science

Mapping Science Committee

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE AT THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Committee on Research Priorities for the USGS Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science Mapping Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. government. The study was supported by a U.S. Geological Survey Grant, No. 04HQAG0138. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11154-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11154-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu Cover: Designed by Van Nguyen. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR THE USGS CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCE ROBERT P. DENARO, Chair, NAVTEQ Corporation, Chicago, Illinois KATE BEARD-TISDALE, University of Maine, Orono CYNTHIA A. BREWER, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park MICHAEL DOMARATZ, Michael Baker Jr. Inc., Alexandria, Virginia PENG GONG, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MING-HSIANG TSOU, San Diego State University, California JOHN P. WILSON, University of Southern California, Los Angeles National Research Council Staff PAUL M. CUTLER, Study Director ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Associate Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara ROBERT P. DENARO, NAVTEQ Corporation, Chicago, Illinois SHOREH ELHAMI, Delaware County Auditor’s Office, Delaware, Ohio HON. JAMES E. GERINGER, Former Governor of Wyoming, ESRI, Wheatland, Wyoming GEORGE F. HEPNER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City JOHN R. JENSEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia NINA S.-N. LAM, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LEWIS A. LAPINE, South Carolina Geodetic Survey, Columbia MARY L. LARSGAARD, University of California, Santa Barbara XAVIER R. LOPEZ, Oracle Corporation, Nashua, New Hampshire ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis SHASHI SHEKHAR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NANCY TOSTA, Ross and Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., Seattle, Washington EUGENE TROBIA, Arizona State Land Department, Phoenix National Research Council Staff MARIA E. UHLE, Program Officer JARED P. ENO, Research Associate

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGEM. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park STEVEN R. BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVIDCOWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park RHEA L. GRAHAM, Pueblo of Sandia, Bernalillo, New Mexico RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden V. RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis CLAYTON NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Standpoint RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada BARBARA A. ROMANOWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson MARK SCHAEFER, Global Environment and Technology Foundation, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM W. SHILTS, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Billings, Montana TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico THOMAS J. WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director PAUL M. CUTLER, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Associate Program Officer RONALD F. ABLER, Senior Scholar JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial Associate VERNA J. BOWEN, Financial and Administrative Associate JARED P. ENO, Research Associate NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate TONYA E. FONG YEE, Program Assistant

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was greatly enhanced by input from participants at the workshop and public committee meetings held as part of this study (see Appendix B). These presentations and discussions helped set the stage for the committee’s fruitful discussions in the sessions that followed. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Kenneth Boyko, U.S. Geological Survey (retired), Newburg, Missouri Barbara Buttenfield, University of Colorado, Boulder Keith Clarke, University of California, Santa Barbara Thomas Cova, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Mark DeMulder, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Reston, Virginia Liping Di, George Mason University, Greenbelt, Maryland William Gail, Microsoft Corporation, Boulder, Colorado May Yuan, University of Oklahoma, Norman Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey CONTENTS     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   13      The Emergence and Focus of CEGIS,   14      CEGIS Today,   17      Focus of This Report,   17      GIScience Capabilities at USGS,   19      Future USGS Research Needs and CEGIS,   22 2   USGS NEEDS FOR GISCIENCE CAPABILITIES   23      Bureau-wide GIScience Research Needs,   23      GIScience Research Supporting NGPO’s Coordination Responsibilities for the Department of the Interior,   27      National Mapping GIScience Research Needs,   28      Summary,   41 3   RESEARCH PRIORITIES   43      Priority Research Areas,   44      Priority Research Topics,   46      Summary,   92 4   REALIZING USGS’S VISION FOR CEGIS   99      Leadership,   99      Models from Which CEGIS Can Learn,   100      Considerations for Building and Operating CEGIS,   102      Realizing CEGIS’s Potential,   104      Summary,   111

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A Research Agenda for Geographic Information Science at the United States Geological Survey     REFERENCES   113     APPENDIXES          A  Committee and Staff Biographies   125      B  Meeting Participants and Presenters   131      C  CEGIS as Envisioned by McMahon et al. (2005)   133      D  Details of CEGIS Funded Activities in Fiscal Year 2007   135      E  Acronyms and Abbreviations   141