The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense: From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships

Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense: From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships Committee on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DTRA01-02-D-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11158-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11158-7 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Suggested citation: National Research Council. 2007. The Biological Threat ReductionProgram of the Department of Defense From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships COMMITTEE ON PREVENTION OF PROLIFERATION OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS David R. Franz, Chair, Vice President and Chief Biological Scientist, Midwest Research Institute Gail H. Cassell, Vice President, Scientific Affairs, and Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company Timothy Endy, Associate Professor of Medicine, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University James W. LeDuc, Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Chair in Global Health, and Associate Director, Galveston National Laboratory, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Russ Zajtchuk, President, Chicago Hospitals International National Research Council Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Anne Harrington, Director, Committee on International Security and Arms Control Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer Amy Moore Mercer, Program Associate

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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships Acknowledgments Of critical importance for this study effort have been the many discussions that committee members and staff have carried out with well-informed officials and scientific colleagues in the United States and abroad. The insights that were obtained during these discussions were essential in providing a basis for the views set forth in this report. Of special importance are the views expressed by a number of officials and specialists in the former Soviet Union who are familiar both with the activities of the Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) and with the public health and agriculture challenges in the region. Many of their comments are included in chapters 2, 4, and 5 of the report. The committee expresses its gratitude for the time that these many colleagues devoted to helping ensure that this report reflects a variety of views from specialists and observers who have been interested for many years in the types of activities of priority interest to BTRP. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard A. Berman, Manhattanville College; Jesse L. Goodman, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; John Hay, University at Buffalo; Christopher P. Howson, March of Dimes Foundation; Michael Moodie, independent consultant; Sue Partridge, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Kim Savit, Science Applications International Corporation and Denver University; and Richard L. Witter, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center. Appointed by the National Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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The Biological Threat Reduction Program of the Department of Defense|From Foreign Assistance to Sustainable Partnerships Contents     Summary   1     Introduction   9 1   Security Context for the Biological Threat Reduction Program   15 2   Achievements of the Biological Threat Reduction Program   27 3   U.S. Government-Wide Biological Threat Reduction Programs and Interagency Coordination   43 4   Overcoming Obstacles Confronting the Biological Threat Reduction Program   57 5   Future of the Biological Threat Reduction Program   67 6   Recommendations   79     APPENDIXES     A   Committee Biographies   85 B   Extracts from Recent National Research Council Reports   89 C   Relevant Reports by the National Academies   93 D   Relevant Recent Reports by the U.S. Government Accountability Office   95 E   Other Reports of Interest   97 F   Research Projects Supported under the Cooperative Biological Research Program   99 G   Agenda of February 7, 2007, Committee Meeting   105 H   Foreign Colleagues Who Participated in Discussions of BTRP in Garmisch, Germany   107

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