I
Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

CHARLES F. KENNEL (Co-Chair) is Distinguished Professor and former director at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the director of the Environment and Sustainability Initiative at the University of California, San Diego. He has an extensive background in environmental science, particularly in observational programs for global change research, and was associate administrator for NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth enterprise in 1993-1996. Dr. Kennel was awarded the Aurelio Peccei Prize from the Accademia Lincei for this work. His earlier research on fundamental plasma physics combined with space and astrophysics was recognized by the James Clerk Maxwell Prize from the American Physical Society and the Hannes Alfven Prize from the European Geophysical Society. He has served on numerous boards and committees of the National Research Council (NRC), most recently as chair of the Committees on Global Change Research and on Fusion Science. He is a former chair of the NASA Advisory Council and, most recently, of its Science Committee.


JOSEPH H. ROTHENBERG (Co-Chair) is currently the president and a member of the board of directors of Universal Space Network. He spent 17 years with Grumman Aerospace and held a number of spacecraft development, testing, operations, and management positions that included both the Solar Max Mission and Orbiting Astronomical Observatory projects. In 1983, he joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as the operations development manager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In 1990 Mr. Rothenberg was selected as project manager for the first HST servicing mission. In 1995 he was named the director of GSFC and was responsible for space systems development and execution of the scientific research program for the NASA Earth-orbiting science missions. In January 1998, he moved to NASA Headquarters, where he was named associate administrator for space flight and was in charge of NASA’s human exploration and development of space. As associate administrator, Mr. Rothenberg was responsible for establishing policies and direction for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs, as well as for space communications and expendable launch services. Mr. Rothenberg served on the NRC Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, and he is currently a member of the Committee on Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration.


ERIC G. ADELBERGER is an experimental physicist at the University of Washington. His research interests cover gravitational physics, the study of fundamental symmetries in nuclei, and nuclear astrophysics. Dr. Adelberger is known for his use of atomic nuclei as laboratories for studying fundamental symmetries and interactions and for



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I Biographies of Committee Members and Staff CHARLES F. KENNEL (Co-Chair) is Distinguished Professor and former director at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the director of the Environment and Sustainability Initiative at the University of California, San Diego. He has an extensive background in environmental science, particularly in observational programs for global change research, and was associate administrator for NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth enterprise in 1993-1996. Dr. Kennel was awarded the Aurelio Peccei Prize from the Accademia Lincei for this work. His earlier research on fundamental plasma physics combined with space and astrophysics was recognized by the James Clerk Maxwell Prize from the American Physical Society and the Hannes Alfven Prize from the European Geophysical Society. He has served on numerous boards and committees of the National Research Council (NRC), most recently as chair of the Committees on Global Change Research and on Fusion Science. He is a former chair of the NASA Advisory Council and, most recently, of its Science Committee. JOSEPH H. ROTHENBERG (Co-Chair) is currently the president and a member of the board of directors of Uni- versal Space Network. He spent 17 years with Grumman Aerospace and held a number of spacecraft development, testing, operations, and management positions that included both the Solar Max Mission and Orbiting Astronomi- cal Observatory projects. In 1983, he joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as the operations development manager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In 1990 Mr. Rothenberg was selected as project manager for the first HST servicing mission. In 1995 he was named the director of GSFC and was responsible for space systems development and execution of the scientific research program for the NASA Earth-orbiting science missions. In January 1998, he moved to NASA Headquarters, where he was named associate administrator for space flight and was in charge of NASA’s human exploration and development of space. As associate administra- tor, Mr. Rothenberg was responsible for establishing policies and direction for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs, as well as for space communications and expendable launch services. Mr. Rothenberg served on the NRC Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, and he is currently a member of the Committee on Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration. ERIC G. ADELBERGER is an experimental physicist at the University of Washington. His research interests cover gravitational physics, the study of fundamental symmetries in nuclei, and nuclear astrophysics. Dr. Adelberger is known for his use of atomic nuclei as laboratories for studying fundamental symmetries and interactions and for 68

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169 APPENDIX I his tests of high-precision gravitational forces. His current research involves experimental work in gravitational physics, nuclear astrophysics, low-energy tests of fundamental symmetrics, and nuclear structure. Dr. Adelberger was awarded the Tom W. Bonner Prize in nuclear physics and the von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award. He served on the NRC Task Group on Gravity Probe B and on the Committee on Gravitational Physics. Dr. Adelberger was a member of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Sci- ence Foundation (NSF) and a member of the NSF Special Emphasis Panel on Nuclear Physics. WILLIAM B. ADKINS is president of Adkins Strategies, LLC, a space and defense consulting firm in Washington, D.C. Prior to forming Adkins Strategies, Mr. Adkins spent 20 years in government service in various capacities within the national security and civil space arenas. Mr. Adkins was a staff director for the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics on the House Science Committee, where he led the subcommittee’s legislative and oversight ac- tivities of NASA and related space and aeronautics activities. Before joining the subcommittee, Mr. Adkins was a legislative assistant for Senator Spencer Abraham (R-Mich.). Before working on Capitol Hill, he worked at the National Reconnaissance Office and the Naval Research Laboratory, where he was involved in the development of space systems and advanced technology. THOMAS APPELQUIST is a professor of physics at Yale University. His research has focused on the theory of elementary particles, including the strong interactions and electroweak unification. His most recent interests have dealt with universal extra dimensions and the origin of the quark and lepton masses. He chaired the NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy’s Physics Survey Overview Committee. JAMES S. BARROWMAN is currently an independent consultant. He worked at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for 22 years in program and project management. At GSFC, he was involved in managing the Attached Shuttle Payloads Project, the Attached Payloads and Explorers Mission project, the Explorers Program, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite, and the Hubble Space Telescope missions. During his tenure at GSFC, he served as deputy director of the Space Science Directorate. He is the recipient of the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal and two NASA Exceptional Service Medals. Mr. Barrowman is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and past president of the National Association of Rocketry. He served on the NRC Committee on Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences: Lessons Learned. DAVID A. BEARDEN is the principal director for NASA programs at the Aerospace Corporation, where he pro- vides technical direction for the staff supporting NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory on interplanetary and Earth science programs. These programs include the Mars Program, Space Interferometry Mission, Outer Planets/Solar Probe Mission, New Millennium Program, Discovery programs, and other space physics and science missions. Dr. Bearden’s expertise lies in the areas of project management, space systems architectural assessment, conceptual design and cost, and simulation and analysis of complex space systems. He joined the Aerospace Corporation in 1991 in the area of space concept analysis and design and later became a section manager in the Space Architec- ture Department. MARK DEVLIN is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on experimental cosmology at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. He designs and builds instrumentation and telescopes that are used in high-altitude balloons. He is currently involved in several projects for which he serves as principal investigator, including BLAST (Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submil- limeter Telescope), ACT (Atacama Cosmology Telescope), Penn Array (a project to build a 90 GHz receiver for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s 100 meter Green Bank Telescope), and PAPPA (Primordial Anisotropy Polarization Pathfinder Array). JOSEPH FULLER, JR., is the founder and president of Futron Corporation, a decision-support consulting firm. The company designs innovative business and technical decision-support solutions to address some of the most challenging technology problems in the aerospace, defense, and transportation industries. Mr. Fuller began his

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170 NASA’S BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM career at NASA, where he spent 20 years as an aerospace systems engineer, project manager, and senior executive. He is experienced in the design, development, and operations of human- and robotic-piloted spacecraft. Space programs to which he has been a contributor include Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, the space shuttle, Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the International Space Sta- tion. He is a recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal. Mr. Fuller is a member of the Industrial Advisory Board of the University of Maryland Baltimore County, and a past member of the NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. KARL GEBHARDT is a professor of astronomy at the University of Texas. His research covers the study of the central regions of galaxies and the search for dark energy using baryonic acoustic oscillations. He is the leader of the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) that was designed to help researchers understand the evolutionary history of dark energy. HETDEX uses the Hobby Eberly Telescope to conduct a large redshift survey that can detect nearly 1 million galaxies over a huge volume. The goal of this research is to determine the expansion history of the universe using baryonic oscillations, thereby determining the evolution of dark energy. Dr. Gebhardt won a 2004 NSF Career Award and participated in the recent NSF Senior Review. WILLIAM C. GIBSON is the vice president of the Space Science and Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute. He has managed such projects as the High Altitude Plasma Instrument for the Dynamics Explorer Satel- lite, the Fast Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Centaur Rocket Project, and the Balloon-Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrometer. In addition to these projects, he served as the project manager for the Imager for Magnetopause- to-Aurora Global Exploration. His areas of technical specialization include the design of spacecraft data systems, spacecraft telemetry and control systems, and spacecraft heat-transfer systems. Mr. Gibson was the architect of the multiprocessor SEPAC On-Line Data Analysis real-time telemetry ground station used during Shuttle Trans- portation System-9 and the lead design engineer on the Johnson Space Center Stratospheric Ozone Experiment. Mr. Gibson served as chair of the NASA Confirmation Review Board for the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Small Explorer mission and as a member of the standing review board for the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer mission. He was a member of the NRC Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Mission and the Committee on Earth Studies. FIONA A. HARRISON is a professor of physics and astronomy in the Space Radiation Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Harrison’s primary research interests are in experimental and observational high-energy astrophysics. She is developing optics and detectors for future balloon- and satellite-borne x-ray and gamma-ray missions. In addition, she has an active observational program in gamma-ray, x-ray, and optical observations of gamma-ray bursts, active galaxies, and neutron stars. She was a member of the NRC Committee on the Physics of the Universe. ANDREW J. LANKFORD is a professor of physics and chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Before joining the UCI, Dr. Lankford served as a physicist in the Research Division at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and as a scientist and research physicist in the Physics Research Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He has also held teaching positions in the Physics De- partments of Stanford University and Yale University. Dr. Lankford is involved in research in elementary particle physics, and he has expertise in particle and radiation detectors and in signal-processing and data-acquisition electronics. He has worked on research projects with the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He serves on advisory panels for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. DENNIS McCARTHY is an aerospace consultant. He recently retired as vice president and director of engineer- ing services for Swales Aerospace, where he was responsible for all engineering discipline support to NASA, universities, and industry. Mr. McCarthy worked at NASA GSFC in 1978-1990, in positions that included deputy project manager for the Cosmic Background Explorer and associate director for NASA’s Space Sciences Director-

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171 APPENDIX I ate. In 1991 he became the program manager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at NASA Headquarters. He returned to GSFC in 1992 and became deputy project manager for the HST Servicing Mission, and later deputy associate director of Flight Projects. In 1995-1998, he served as program director for Johns Hopkins University’s first principal-investigator program, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. STEPHAN S. MEYER holds joint professorship in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Depart- ment of Physics, and the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago. Dr. Meyer’s research is focused on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and he is a member of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe science team. He is also involved in the Extragalactic Diffuse Emission Experiment that is designed to measure the large-scale structure of the cosmic infrared background radiation, which will provide a new probe of structure growth, galaxy and star formation, and dust emission at redshifts. Dr. Meyer is involved in the South Pole Tele- scope project to map clusters of galaxies using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and measure CMB polarization. He is currently a member of the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics. JOEL R. PRIMACK is a professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research covers relativistic quantum field theory, cosmology, and particle astrophysics. In collaboration with colleagues from astronomy, he developed the “cold dark matter” theory. Currently he has been investigating the implications of various hypotheses regarding the identity of dark matter for the formation and distribution of galaxies, and he is a member of a team that is exploring the cultural implications of the ongoing revolution in cosmology. Dr. Primack is the co-editor of Dark Matter in the Universe (1995) and co-author of Advice and Dissent: Scientists  in the Political Arena (1972), and of The View from the Center of the Universe: Discovering Our Extraordinary  Place in the Cosmos (2006). LISA J. RANDALL is a professor of theoretical physics at Harvard University. Her research covers elementary particles and fundamental forces, with the most recent involving extra dimensions of space. She has also worked on supersymmetry, Standard Model observables, cosmological inflation, baryogenesis, grand unified theories, general relativity, and string theory. Dr. Randall recently completed a book entitled Warped Passages: Unraveling  the Mysteries of the Universe’s Hidden Dimensions (2005). CRAIG L. SARAZIN is the W.H. Vanderbilt Professor of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. He is a theoreti- cal and observational astrophysicist whose areas of research include interstellar medium, clusters of galaxies, x-ray emission, and extragalactic astronomy. Dr. Sarazin served as chair or as a member of numerous scientific commit- tees, including the Universities Space Research Association‘s Astronomy and Space Physics Science Council, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Users’ Committee, and the Extragalactic Proposal Review Panel for Hubble Space. He was a member of the NRC Committee on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Panel on High-Energy Astrophysics from Space of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. JAMES S. ULVESTAD is the assistant director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the director of Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) operations. As the director of VLA/VLBA operations, he has responsibility for all aspects of the VLA and VLBA, including the Expanded Very Large Array project. Before undertaking his position at NRAO, Dr. Ulvestad spent 12 years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory working on topics such as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), VLA arraying for the Voyager- Neptune encounter, VLBI astrometry, and optical interferometry. His primary research interests include Seyfert and starburst galaxies and compact radio emission from extragalactic gamma-ray sources. CLIFFORD M. WILL is the James S. McDonnell Professor of Physics and a member of the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis. His research is on general relativity and its applica- tions to astrophysics, gravitational radiation, black holes, cosmology, and experimental tests of general relativity. Dr. Will served on the NRC Committee on Gravitational Physics, the Committee on Physics of the Universe, and the Fundamental Physics Panel of the Task Group on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics; he currently serves as

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172 NASA’S BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM chair of the NASA Science Advisory Committee for Gravity Probe B. He served as chair of the American Physi- cal Society Topical Group on Gravitation and is currently the president of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. Dr. Will is a fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Science. MICHAEL S. WITHERELL is vice chancellor for research and a professor of physics at the University of Cali- fornia, Santa Barbara. He is an experimental particle physicist and a former director of Fermilab. He pioneered the development of silicon-strip detector technology, using it to perform precise studies of the production and decay of particles that carry the charm quark. Dr. Witherell served on the NRC Committee on Elementary Particle Physics. EDWARD L. WRIGHT is a professor of astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Wright’s research interests are in theoretical and experimental infrared astronomy and cosmology, especially cosmic microwave background radiation studies. He played a major role on the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission, and in 1992 he received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal for this work. He is a co-investigator on NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, a mission that is a follow-up to the COBE discovery of fluctuations in the early universe. Dr. Wright participated in the Joint Efficient Dark-energy Investigation, and he is an interdisciplinary scientist on the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (now the Spitzer Space Telescope) Science Working Group. His NRC experience includes membership on the Panel on Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy from Space; the Committee on Physics of the Universe; and the Panel on Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. Dr. Wright is the principal investigator for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer MidEx mission to be launched in 2009. Staff MARCIA S. SMITH is the director of the Space Studies Board and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. Prior to joining the NRC in March 2006, Ms. Smith was a senior level specialist in aerospace and telecommuni- cations policy for the Resources, Science, and Industry Division of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. She had been with CRS since 1975, serving as a policy analyst for the members and committees of the U.S. Congress on matters concerning U.S. and foreign military and civilian space activities, and on telecommunications issues including the Internet (and formerly on nuclear energy). From 1985-1986, Ms. Smith took a leave of absence to serve as executive director of the U.S. National Commission on Space. Ms. Smith is the North American editor for the quarterly journal Space Policy. She is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the American Astronautical Society (president, 1985-1986), and the British Interplanetary Society. She was awarded the AAS John F. Kennedy Astronautics Award in 2006. She was a founder of Women in Aerospace (WIA), its president (1987), a member of its board of directors (1984-1990), and was awarded its Lifetime Achievement Award in 2003. She is also a member of the International Institute of Space Law and the International Academy of Astronautics, and she is a life member of the New York Academy of Sciences and of the Washington Academy of Sciences. She is a member of Sigma Xi. She was a member of the NRC Committee on Human Exploration (1992-1993 and 1996-1997). A graduate of Syracuse University, Ms. Smith is the author or co-author of more than 220 reports and articles on space, nuclear energy, and telecommunications and Internet issues. DONALD C. SHAPERO is director of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. He received a B.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiving the Ph.D., he became a Thomas J. Watson Postdoctoral Fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American University, later moving to Catholic University, and then joining the staff of the NRC in 1975. Dr. Shapero took a leave of

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173 APPENDIX I absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a member of the American Physical Society (APS), the American Astronomical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the International Astronomical Union and is a fellow of the AAAS and the APS. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science. BRIAN D. DEWHURST joined the National Research Council in 2001 and is a senior program associate with the Board on Physics and Astronomy. He is the staff officer and study director for a variety of NRC activities, including the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Radio Frequencies, and other as- tronomy-oriented tasks. He received a B.A. in astronomy and history from the University of Virginia in 2000 and an M.A. in science, technology, and public policy from George Washington University in 2002. He joined the staff of the Space Studies Board as a research assistant in 2001 and transferred to his current position with the Board on Physics and Astronomy in 2002. SANDRA J. GRAHAM has been a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board since 1994. During that time Dr. Graham has directed a large number of major studies, many of them focused on space research in biological and physical sciences and technology. More recent studies include an assessment of servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, reviews of the NASA roadmaps for space sciences and the International Space Station, and a review of NASA’s Space Communications Program while on loan to the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. Before receiving her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Duke University in 1990, she carried out research focused primarily on topics in bioinorganic chemistry, such as the exchange mechanisms and reaction chemistry of biological metal complexes and their analogs. From 1990 to 1994, she held the position of senior scientist at the Bionetics Corporation, where she worked in the science branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. PAMELA L. WHITNEY, study director (through January 2007), was a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board, where she directed studies and workshops on international cooperation in space, Earth remote sensing, Mars planetary protection, and space policy, among other space technology and research topics. Ms. Whitney also served as the executive secretary of the U.S. National Committee to the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science (ICSU). Previously, she held positions as an analyst at the aerospace consulting firm CSP Associates, Inc., and as a researcher and writer for Time-Life Books, Inc. Ms. Whitney was president of Freelance Unlimited and conducted work with the National Geographic Society, the World Bank, and the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment. She holds an A.B. in economics from Smith College and an M.A. in international communication from American University. She is a member of Women in Aerospace and a cor- responding member of the International Academy of Astronautics. VICTORIA SWISHER is a research associate. She has supported Space Studies Board studies and workshops on the NASA workforce, Mars research, research enabled by the lunar environment, and other topics. Before joining the Space Studies Board, she did research in x-ray astronomy and laboratory astrophysics, which included studying the x-rays of plasma and culminated in her senior thesis, “Modeling UV and X-ray Spectra from the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment.” A graduate of Swarthmore College, she majored in astronomy and minored in English literature. CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an assistant editor with the Space Studies Board. She joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Sci- ence and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Academy of Sciences-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in

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174 NASA’S BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN has worked for the National Academies since 1974. She started as a senior project assistant in the Institute for Laboratory Animals for Research, which is now a board in the Division on Earth and Life Sciences. After working there for 2 years, she transferred to the Space Science Board, now the Space Studies Board (SSB). She is now an program associate with the SSB. CELESTE A. NAYLOR joined the NRC and the Space Studies Board in June 2002 as a senior project assistant. She has worked with the Committee on Assessment of Options to Extend the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Microgravity Research, and the Task Group on Research on the International Space Station. Ms. Naylor is a member of the Society of Government Meeting Professionals and has more than 7 years of experience in event management.