TABLE 1-1 Selected Exposure Guidelines and Actions Taken on Beryllium

Agency

Year

Guideline or Action

Notes and References

DOE

1949

2 µg/m3 OEL (DWA)

DWA is averaged from samples over quarterly periods

 

1999

0.2 µg/m3 (8-h TWA action level)

Action level triggers worker-protection measures; issued while waiting for OSHA to complete rule-making (64 Fed. Reg. 68854 [1999]).

 

2006

Worker safety and health program

71 Fed. Reg. 6858 (2006)

ACGIH

1959

2 µg/m3 TLV (8-h TWA)

ACGIH 2006

 

1975

A2 carcinogen (suspected human carcinogen)

ACGIH 2006

 

1997

A1 carcinogen (confirmed human carcinogen)

ACGIH 2006

 

1999

0.2 µg/m3 TLV (8-h TWA, inhalable particulate mass, sensitizer; notice to change)

ACGIH 2006

 

2005

0.05 µg/m3 TLV (8-h TWA, inhalable particulate mass, sensitizer, skin exposure; notice of intended change)

ACGIH 2006

NIOSH

1972

2 µg/m3 REL (8-h TWA)

NIOSH 1972

 

1977

0.5 µg/m3 REL (10-h TWA)

Potential occupational carcinogen; NIOSH recommended that OSHA reduce PEL (NIOSH 1977); not clear from documentation whether REL in 1977 was for 8 h or 10 h. NIOSH (2005) reports it as 10-h TWA

OSHA

1971

2 µg/m3 PEL (8-h TWA)

PEL was adopted from ANSI standard (OSHA 2002)

 

1975

1 µg/m3 PEL (8-h TWA; proposed value)

Proposed value is based on presumption of carcinogenicity; never promulgated (40 Fed. Reg. 48814 [1975]; OSHA 2002)

 

1999, 2001

OSHA petitioned to issue an emergency temporary standard

Petition denied by OSHA, but OSHA stated its intent to begin data-gathering (OSHA 2002)

 

2002

Request for information issued

67 Fed. Reg. 70700 (2002)

AIHA

1964

2 µg/m3 hygienic standard (8-h TWA)

AIHA 1964

ANSI

1970

2 µg/m3 OEL for particles ≤5 µm (8-h TWA)

ANSI 1970

IARC

1993

Human carcinogen (Group 1)

IARC 1993

EPA

1998

RfC = 0.02 µg/m3

Value based on sensitization and progression to CBD (EPA 1998a)

 

 

Air unit risk = 2.4 × 10−3 per µg/m3

Value based on lung cancer (EPA 1998a)

 

 

Community PEL (24-h ambient air limit) = 0.01 µg/m3

40 CFR § 61.32

ABBREVIATIONS: ACGIH, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; AIHA, American Industrial Hygiene Association; ANSI, American National Standards Institute; CBD, chronic beryllium disease; DOE, U.S. Department of Energy; DWA, daily weighted average; EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; NIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; OEL, occupational exposure limit; OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration; PEL, permissible exposure limit; REL, recommended exposure limit; RfC, reference concentration (inhalation); RfD, reference dose (oral); TLV, Threshold Limit Value; TWA, time-weighted average.



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