This report led to the creation in 2004 of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), which was established under DHHS to advise all federal departments and agencies that conduct or support life sciences research that could potentially be dual use.


National Academies: Development, Security and Cooperation

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism; also known as the “Fink Report”


Government Accountability Office

Streamlined Visas Mantis Program Has Lowered Burden on Foreign Science Students and Scholars, But Further Refinements Needed

This report was commissioned because of the delay found in processing visa applications of foreign students and scholars; when released the report found that the delay had been significantly reduced.


Center for Strategic and International Studies

Global Evolution of Dual-Use Biotechnology

Outlined differences between previous warfare equipment regulation with dual-use biological equipment and the difficulty in regulating equipment for dual-use research.


Center for Strategic and International Studies

Security Controls on Scientific Information and the Conduct of Scientific Research Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Rising Above the Gathering Storm;

Asserted that an open scientific environment is needed for the greatest security of the United States.


National Academies: Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Recommended reshaping federal policies that govern the movement and activities of international scientists and engineers, particularly with respect to visa and immigration policy.


National Academies:

America’s economic leadership is being challenged by globalization;


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement