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gressional, executive, or administrative authority and appropriations be given to U.S. agencies that engage in violence prevention work domestically to expand to an international focus. Next, conduct in-country analysis and use it as a guide for capacity building, inventory current efforts to document progress, identify gaps, and bring in other groups and other countries to develop more encompassing definitions and program efforts. This would ensure that there would be one place in which all of this information could be found, including the research and findings presented during this workshop. Next, they suggested coordinated meetings between key agencies and serious consideration of establishing an interagency task force to focus on violence prevention. Lastly, they suggested targeting PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) countries for violence prevention effort “add-ons” to current AIDS work.

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS

Pat Kelley, Mark Rosenberg, and Etienne Krug offered some thoughts about the workshop and the next steps. Dr. Kelley stated that the IOM report of this workshop’s proceedings would capture many of the ideas presented that might serve the larger scientific and implementing communities in their efforts to move the agenda on violence prevention forward. He mentioned that the report might also serve the upcoming dialogue around the reauthorization of PEPFAR, as well as the IOM’s Board on Global Health for consideration in its future study portfolio. Dr Krug, on behalf of the World Health Organisation, stated this was a very important meeting because the latest evidence on what is known in the United States about violence prevention and the study of violence is of great interest to him and his colleagues. He also suggested that the way in which this workshop meeting was organized and done could become a model for repetition in other countries, because, he noted, the lack of involvement of the U.S. government can also be said for the governments of the United Kingdom, France, and many other donor governments. Dr. Krug stated that the follow-up to this meeting would be critically important and expressed his hope that the momentum and networking created during the workshop would spur Congress to empower U.S. agencies to do more in this field. He stated that the suggestions that the participants generated were considered valuable, but the most important to WHO would be for the United States Agency for International Development, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many other U.S. government agencies be empowered to technically, politically, and financially support international violence prevention efforts.

Dr. Rosenberg talked about John Seely Brown’s four stages of knowledge development, through which he generated a scorecard to rate the



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