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and dissemination, intervention development, and victim services), as well as the inputs for desired impacts and outcomes, with the ultimate goal of preventing violence to promote health and well-being in developing countries. In his concluding remarks before introducing the moderator of the panel that would address resource mobilization, Rosenberg stressed the need for strong and effective collaborations and partnerships. Discussions at the networking dinner following the first day’s presentations revealed that it took 24 months to build the partnerships in the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) study and even longer, sometimes years, for other partnerships to be built for long-term interventions. Rosenberg also noted that these collaborations often need strategies, management, structure, and investments to get things accomplished.

Rodney Hammond moderated this session and explained that the speakers were asked to organize their presentations around the themes of identifying the groundwork they are laying to internationally expand and scale up the public health approach, identifying what more needs to be done to support effective efforts, and providing examples of the investments and activities that suggest a strategy for widespread adoption of effective methods to prevent violence.

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION

Collective, interpersonal, or self-directed violence has extensive and pervasive long-term implications for development and health. Moreover, these effects are themselves multi-layered and can undermine development at individual, communal, and national levels. Although the different paths by which violence exerts such economic strains remain unclear, the Millennium Development Plan is a useful framework for examining the wide-ranging impacts of violence on different sectors and systems. Violence and underdevelopment may be linked in a vicious circle where each perpetuates the other. There is also a vicious cycle between poverty and violence. On the one hand it is well established that poverty, particularly in the context of economic inequality and especially when geographically concentrated, contributes to high levels of violence by weakening intergenerational family and community ties, control of peer groups, and participation in community organizations. In turn, evidence from the World Bank indicates that high rates of violence in a community reduce property values and undermine the growth and development of business, thus contributing to the very inequalities and concentrations of poverty that play a role in causing violence (see Appendix C, Matzopoulos et al., 2007).

Alexander Butchart acknowledged various bilateral efforts of the United States in South Africa and Jamaica, the United Kingdom in South Africa,



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