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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 6
Time Scaling: None, because the degree of irritation is expected to remain within the scope of AEGL-2 for 60 min.
Time Scaling: Cn × t = k, where n = 1.7 [n is based on regression analysis of Guzman et al. (1961) cardiotoxicity data].
Data Adequacy: Dataset was limited but adequate. All derived AEGL-2 values were well below 14 ppm, which was “intolerable” to human volunteers (Hine et al. 1960).
Reference: Hine, C.H., J.K. Kodama, R.J. Guzman, and G.S. Loquvam. 1960. The toxicity of allylamines. Arch. Environ. Health 1:343-352.
Test Species/Strain/Sex/Number: Long-Evans rats, five/dose group.
Exposure Route/Concentrations/Durations: Inhalation for 1, 4, or 8 h; see below:
Effects: All treated rats showed signs of eye and respiratory tract irritation, and some had lacrimation and red nasal discharge. Rats that died had stomachs distended with air, fluid-filled lungs, alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Mortality rates and calculated LC50 and LC01 values are as follows:
LC50 = 1933 ppm
LC50 = 286 ppm
LC50 =177 ppm
LC01 = 533 ppm
LC01 = 104 ppm
LC01 = 69.2 ppm
End point/Concentration/Rationale: LC01 values, representing the lethality NOEL, were calculated by probit analysis using 1-, 4-, and 8-h exposure data from the key study.
Total uncertainty factor: 30.
Uncertainty factors: Total uncertainty factor: 30.
Interspecies: 10; to account for the lack of acute toxicity studies with AEGL-3 end points from other species.
Intraspecies: 3; steep dose-response (~2-fold increase in concentration caused mortality to increase from 0 to 100%) indicates the NOEL for lethality due to direct destruction of lung tissue is not likely to vary greatly among humans.
Modifying Factor: Not applicable.
Animal to Human Dosimetric Adjustment: Not applied.
Time Scaling: Cn × t = k, where n = 0.85, based on regression analysis of key study.
Time scaling was used only for derivation of the 10- and 30-min values, using the 1-h LC01.
Data Adequacy: The dataset was limited but adequate. The key rat study was well conducted, and the data were internally consistent.