experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic nonsensory effects. However, the effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure.

AEGL-2 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape.

AEGL-3 is the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience life-threatening health effects or death.


Airborne concentrations below the AEGL-1 represent exposure levels that can produce mild and progressively increasing but transient and nondisabling odor, taste, and sensory irritation or certain asymptomatic nonsensory effects. With increasing airborne concentrations above each AEGL, there is a progressive increase in the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of effects described for each corresponding AEGL. Although the AEGL values represent threshold levels for the general public, including susceptible subpopulations, such as infants, children, the elderly, persons with asthma, and those with other illnesses, it is recognized that individuals, subject to unique or idiosyncratic responses, could experience the effects described at concentrations below the corresponding AEGL.

SUMMARY

Ammonia is a colorless, corrosive, alkaline gas that has a very pungent odor. The odor detection level ranges from 5 to 53 ppm. Ammonia is used as a compressed gas and in aqueous solutions. It is also used in household cleaning products, in fertilizers, and as a refrigerant. Exposure to ammonia occurs as a result of accidents during highway and railway transportation, accidental releases at manufacturing facilities, and farming accidents.

Ammonia is very soluble in water. Because of its exothermic properties, ammonia forms ammonium hydroxide and produces heat when it contacts moist surfaces, such as mucous membranes. The corrosive and exothermic properties of ammonia can result in immediate damage (severe irritation and burns) to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes of the oral cavity and respiratory tract. In addition, ammonia is effectively scrubbed in the nasopharyngeal region of the respiratory tract because of its high solubility in water.

The database for ammonia consisted primarily of case reports, human studies, and experimental studies on lethality and irritation in animals. The case reports were of limited use for quantitative evaluation, but the human and animal studies contained quantitative data useful for deriving AEGL values.

No reliable quantitative exposure data were available for humans dying as a result of accidental exposure to ammonia. One case report noted the death of



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