Appendix C
Data on Science and Engineering Doctorates

APPENDIX TABLE C-1 Doctorates Awarded, by Selected Fields of Study, 2000-2005

Field

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

All fields

41,361

40,651

39,953

40,740

42,117

43,354

Science and engineering

25,966

25,496

24,582

25,274

26,272

27,974

Science

20,643

19,988

19,505

19,995

20,497

21,570

Biological/agricultural sciences

6,890

6,668

6,699

6,753

6,984

7,406

Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences

694

660

689

683

686

713

Mathematics/computer sciences

1,910

1,832

1,726

1,859

2,024

2,339

Physical sciences

3,378

3,364

3,185

3,289

3,338

3,647

Psychology

3,616

3,385

3,197

3,273

3,327

3,327

Social sciences

4,155

4,079

4,009

4,138

4,138

4,138

Engineering

5,323

5,508

5,077

5,279

5,775

6,404

Non-science and engineering

15,395

15,155

15,371

15,466

15,845

15,380

Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Adapted from NSF (2006d): Table 1.



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Appendix C Data on Science and Engineering Doctorates APPENDIX TABLE C-1 Doctorates Awarded, by Selected Fields of Study, 2000-2005 Field 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 All fields 41,361 40,651 39,953 40,740 42,117 43,354 Science and engineering 25,966 25,496 24,582 25,274 26,272 27,974 Science 20,643 19,988 19,505 19,995 20,497 21,570 Biological/agricultural sciences 6,890 6,668 6,699 6,753 6,984 7,406 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 694 660 689 683 686 713 Mathematics/computer sciences 1,910 1,832 1,726 1,859 2,024 2,339 Physical sciences 3,378 3,364 3,185 3,289 3,338 3,647 Psychology 3,616 3,385 3,197 3,273 3,327 3,327 Social sciences 4,155 4,079 4,009 4,138 4,138 4,138 Engineering 5,323 5,508 5,077 5,279 5,775 6,404 Non-science and engineering 15,395 15,155 15,371 15,466 15,845 15,380 Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Adapted from NSF (2006d): Table 1. 105

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APPENDIX TABLE C-2 Doctorates Awarded to Women, by Selected Fields of Study, 2000- 2005. Field 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2005(%) All fields 18,126 17,855 18,117 18,496 19,157 19,564 45.1 Science and engineering 9,393 9,286 9,163 9,517 9,856 10,533 37.7 Science 8,555 8,356 8,272 8,606 8,835 9,359 43.4 Biological/agricultural sciences 2,939 2,889 2,864 2,978 3,155 3,481 47.0 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 196 198 211 213 238 243 34.1 Mathematics/computer sciences 400 431 432 440 504 551 23.6 Physical sciences 827 828 847 891 865 972 26.7 Psychology 2,410 2,260 2,132 2,231 2,246 2,264 68.0 Social sciences 1,783 1,750 1,786 1,853 1,827 1,848 44.7 Engineering 838 930 891 911 1,021 1,174 18.3 Non-science and engineering 8,733 8,569 8,954 8,979 9,301 9,031 58.7 Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Adapted from NSF (2006d): Table 2. 106

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APPENDIX TABLE C-3 Doctorates Awarded, by Selected Fields of Study and Citizenship, 2000–2005 Characteristic and field 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 All fields 41,361 40,651 39,953 40,740 42,117 43,354 Science and engineering 25,966 25,496 24,582 25,274 26,272 27,974 Science 20,643 19,988 19,505 19,995 20,497 21,570 Agricultural sciences 1,037 975 1,009 1,060 1,045 1,038 Biological sciences 5,853 5,693 5,690 5,693 5,939 6,368 Computer sciences 860 825 807 866 948 1,136 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 694 660 689 683 686 713 Mathematics 1,050 1,007 919 993 1,076 1,203 Physical sciences 3,378 3,364 3,185 3,289 3,338 3,647 Psychology 3,616 3,385 3,197 3,273 3,327 3,327 Social sciences 4,155 4,079 4,009 4,138 4,138 4,138 Engineering 5,323 5,508 5,077 5,279 5,775 6,404 Non-science and engineering 15,395 15,155 15,371 15,466 15,845 15,380 U.S. citizen or permanent resident, all fields 29,936 28,800 27,650 28,129 28,004 27,912 Science and engineering 17,116 16,319 15,511 15,733 15,744 16,024 Science 14,543 13,867 13,346 13,555 13,557 13,740 Agricultural sciences 559 506 492 562 566 557 Biological sciences 4,268 4,248 4,113 4,059 4,196 4,396 Computer sciences 458 424 420 446 447 473 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 474 411 433 451 438 442 Mathematics 574 526 443 517 511 541 Physical sciences 2,072 2,035 1,923 1,951 1,858 1,900 Psychology 3,230 2,977 2,793 2,855 2,788 2,891 Social sciences 2,908 2,740 2,729 2,714 2,753 2,540 Engineering 2,573 2,452 2,165 2,178 2,187 2,284 Non-science and engineering 12,820 12,481 12,139 12,396 12,260 11,888 U.S. citizen, all fields 27,986 26,975 25,998 26,499 26,466 26,312 Science and engineering 15,707 15,049 14,341 14,635 14,741 14,912 Science 13,484 12,896 12,448 12,723 12,796 12,913 Agricultural sciences 498 469 460 521 531 527 Biological sciences 3,904 3,909 3,798 3,796 3,963 4,141 Computer sciences 389 369 356 389 397 405 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 444 382 397 419 415 421 Mathematics 518 471 412 471 456 480 Physical sciences 1,871 1,854 1,762 1,800 1,740 1,768 Psychology 3,155 2,902 2,722 2,786 2,723 2,811 Social sciences 2,705 2,540 2,541 2,541 2,571 2,360 Engineering 2,223 2,153 1,893 1,912 1,945 1,999 Non-science and engineering 12,279 11,926 11,657 11,864 11,725 11,400 Non-U.S. citizen with permanent visa, all fields 1,950 1,825 1,652 1,630 1,538 1,600 Science and engineering 1,409 1,270 1,170 1,098 1,003 1,112 107

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Science 1,059 971 898 832 761 827 Agricultural sciences 61 37 32 41 35 30 Biological sciences 364 339 315 263 233 255 Computer sciences 69 55 64 57 50 68 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 30 29 36 32 23 21 Mathematics 56 55 31 46 55 61 Physical sciences 201 181 161 151 118 132 Psychology 75 75 71 69 65 80 Social sciences 203 200 188 173 182 180 Engineering 350 299 272 266 242 285 Non-science and engineering 541 555 482 532 535 488 Non-U.S. citizen with temporary visa, all fields 9,660 9,800 9,731 10,589 11,617 12,824 Science and engineering 7,658 7,943 7,691 8,382 9,151 10,404 Science 5,207 5,156 5,042 5,472 5,843 6,650 Agricultural sciences 443 400 433 427 418 415 Biological sciences 1,385 1,242 1,292 1,398 1,470 1,677 Computer sciences 363 358 348 378 459 599 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 182 219 223 201 224 233 Mathematics 443 434 440 440 528 602 Physical sciences 1,148 1,205 1,106 1,216 1,346 1,550 Psychology 164 152 156 195 188 210 Social sciences 1,079 1,146 1,044 1,217 1,210 1,364 Engineering 2,451 2,787 2,649 2,910 3,308 3,754 Non-science and engineering 2,002 1,857 2,040 2,207 2,466 2,420 Non-U.S. citizen, all fields 11,610 11,625 11,383 12,219 13,155 14,424 Science and engineering 9,067 9,213 8,861 9,480 10,154 11,516 Science 6,266 6,127 5,940 6,304 6,604 7,477 Agricultural sciences 504 437 465 468 453 445 Biological sciences 1,749 1,581 1,607 1,661 1,703 1,932 Computer sciences 432 413 412 435 509 667 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 212 248 259 233 247 254 Mathematics 499 489 471 486 583 663 Physical sciences 1,349 1,386 1,267 1,367 1,464 1,682 Psychology 239 227 227 264 253 290 Social sciences 1,282 1,346 1,232 1,390 1,392 1,544 Engineering 2,801 3,086 2,921 3,176 3,550 4,039 Non-science and engineering 2,543 2,412 2,522 2,739 3,001 2,908 Citizenship unknown, all fields 1,765 2,051 2,572 2,022 2,496 2,618 Science and engineering 1,192 1,234 1,380 1,159 1,377 1,546 Science 893 965 1,117 968 1,097 1,180 Agricultural sciences 35 69 84 71 61 66 Biological sciences 200 203 285 236 273 295 Computer sciences 39 43 39 42 42 64 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 38 30 33 31 24 38 Mathematics 33 47 36 36 37 60 Physical sciences 158 124 156 122 134 197 Psychology 222 256 248 223 351 226 108

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Social sciences 168 193 236 207 175 234 Engineering 299 269 263 191 280 366 Non-science and engineering 573 817 1,192 863 1,119 1,072 Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Adapted from NSF (2006d): Table 3. 109

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APPENDIX TABLE C-4 Doctorates Awarded to U.S. Citizens, by Race/Ethnicity and Major Field of Study of Recipients, 2000-2005. Race/ethnicity and field 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 All fields 27,986 26,975 25,998 26,499 26,466 26,312 Science and engineering 15,707 15,049 14,341 14,635 14,741 14,912 Science 13,484 12,896 12,448 12,723 12,796 12,913 Agricultural sciences 498 469 460 521 531 527 Biological sciences 3,904 3,909 3,798 3,796 3,963 4,141 Computer sciences 389 369 356 389 397 405 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 444 382 397 419 415 421 Mathematics 518 471 412 471 456 480 Physical sciences 1,871 1,854 1,762 1,800 1,740 1,768 Psychology 3,155 2,902 2,722 2,786 2,723 2,811 Social sciences 2,705 2,540 2,541 2,541 2,571 2,360 Engineering 2,223 2,153 1,893 1,912 1,945 1,999 Non-science and engineering 12,279 11,926 11,657 11,864 11,725 11,400 American Indian/Alaska Native, all fields 169 148 146 134 129 139 Science and engineering 88 71 66 72 59 66 Science 80 65 60 61 54 58 Agricultural sciences 5 0 2 4 4 3 Biological sciences 17 15 12 11 14 12 Computer sciences 1 0 1 2 2 1 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 4 0 0 2 4 4 Mathematics 2 1 3 2 0 0 Physical sciences 9 12 7 2 5 4 Psychology 22 17 15 22 12 15 Social sciences 20 20 20 16 13 19 Engineering 8 6 6 11 5 8 Non-science and engineering 81 77 80 62 70 73 Asian, all fieldsa 1,365 1,411 1,364 1,372 1,451 1,493 Science and engineering 992 1,053 1,035 1,008 1,066 1,114 Science 751 790 788 797 838 872 Agricultural sciences 15 11 13 9 13 13 Biological sciences 318 361 373 379 380 409 Computer sciences 41 36 50 45 42 52 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 8 12 5 8 6 11 Mathematics 44 32 19 38 29 38 Physical sciences 101 123 118 110 126 140 Psychology 121 100 105 104 134 110 Social sciences 103 115 105 104 108 99 Engineering 241 263 247 211 228 242 Non-science and engineering 373 358 329 364 385 379 Black/African American, all fields 1,631 1,611 1,665 1,708 1,881 1,688 Science and engineering 646 630 636 615 689 640 110

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Science 572 548 560 544 605 555 Agricultural sciences 12 9 9 18 18 13 Biological sciences 110 125 114 100 136 142 Computer sciences 13 13 17 17 15 15 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 3 5 4 11 6 6 Mathematics 14 17 13 14 8 16 Physical sciences 52 46 62 48 49 47 Psychology 184 167 162 163 204 159 Social sciences 184 166 179 173 169 157 Engineering 74 82 76 71 84 85 Non-science and engineering 985 981 1,029 1,093 1,192 1,048 Hispanic, all fieldsb 1,182 1,122 1,237 1,280 1,178 1,294 Science and engineering 651 581 652 659 645 722 Science 582 507 564 568 572 649 Agricultural sciences 20 21 20 19 15 14 Biological sciences 155 149 161 158 175 207 Computer sciences 11 6 13 9 12 9 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 16 5 11 10 10 15 Mathematics 13 14 11 15 21 23 Physical sciences 71 61 55 61 56 69 Psychology 203 155 179 162 164 178 Social sciences 93 96 114 134 119 134 Engineering 69 74 88 91 73 73 Non-science and engineering 531 541 585 621 533 572 Mexican American, all fields 400 379 400 458 431 497 Science and engineering 206 170 183 209 217 237 Science 180 153 167 194 195 213 Agricultural sciences 6 4 7 7 6 3 Biological sciences 44 47 52 53 54 68 Computer sciences 3 2 3 3 3 2 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 4 2 4 0 3 3 Mathematics 8 6 2 4 7 7 Physical sciences 22 15 15 25 20 19 Psychology 60 49 50 51 51 58 Social sciences 33 28 34 51 51 53 Engineering 26 17 16 15 22 24 Non-science and engineering 194 209 217 249 214 260 Puerto Rican, all fields 326 296 345 260 259 264 Science and engineering 183 149 196 147 140 159 Science 163 136 170 128 121 143 Agricultural sciences 6 6 9 3 4 5 Biological sciences 33 48 56 34 51 53 Computer sciences 4 1 4 2 4 0 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 5 1 3 4 5 5 Mathematics 2 2 3 3 2 5 Physical sciences 20 14 20 17 16 17 Psychology 74 39 50 47 19 37 111

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Social sciences 19 25 25 18 20 21 Engineering 20 13 26 19 19 16 Non-science and engineering 143 147 149 113 119 105 Other Hispanic, all fields 456 447 492 562 488 533 Science and engineering 262 262 273 303 288 326 Science 239 218 227 246 256 293 Agricultural sciences 8 11 4 9 5 6 Biological sciences 78 54 53 71 70 86 Computer sciences 4 3 6 4 5 7 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 7 2 4 6 2 7 Mathematics 3 6 6 8 12 11 Physical sciences 29 32 20 19 20 33 Psychology 69 67 79 64 94 83 Social sciences 41 43 55 65 48 60 Engineering 23 44 46 57 32 33 Non-science and engineering 194 185 219 259 200 207 White, all fields 22,970 21,869 20,757 20,872 20,762 20,845 Science and engineering 12,921 12,225 11,486 11,612 11,630 11,848 Science 11,156 10,575 10,091 10,155 10,168 10,327 Agricultural sciences 433 417 407 452 457 473 Biological sciences 3,195 3,143 3,028 2,978 3,104 3,248 Computer sciences 311 300 267 294 308 305 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 398 345 361 369 364 374 Mathematics 437 396 353 379 376 387 Physical sciences 1,594 1,547 1,464 1,481 1,410 1,442 Psychology 2,569 2,372 2,188 2,222 2,105 2,243 Social sciences 2,219 2,055 2,023 1,980 2,044 1,855 Engineering 1,765 1,650 1,395 1,457 1,462 1,521 Non-science and engineering 10,049 9,644 9,271 9,260 9,132 8,997 Education 4,329 4,158 4,007 4,103 3,978 3,928 Health 940 885 944 934 938 929 Humanities 3,583 3,472 3,264 3,229 3,166 3,020 Professional/other/unknown 1,197 1,129 1,056 994 1,050 1,120 Other/unknown, all fieldsc 669 814 829 1,133 1,065 853 Science and engineering 409 489 466 669 652 522 Science 343 411 385 598 559 452 Agricultural sciences 13 11 9 19 24 11 Biological sciences 109 116 110 170 154 123 Computer sciences 12 14 8 22 18 23 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 15 15 16 19 25 11 Mathematics 8 11 13 23 22 16 Physical sciences 44 65 56 98 94 66 Psychology 56 91 73 113 104 106 Social sciences 86 88 100 134 118 96 Engineering 66 78 81 71 93 70 Non-science and engineering 260 325 363 464 413 331 a Pacific Islanders are included in this category prior to 2001. 112

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b Includes Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and other Hispanic. c Native Hawaiian, other Pacific Islanders, and multiple race/ethnicity are included in this category from 2001 forward. Note: Categories are grouped differently from questionnaire and summary reports in that linguistics, history of science, American studies, and archaeology are included in social sciences and not in humanities, and public administration is included in social sciences. Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates. Adapted from NSF (2006d): Table 3. 113