Appendix E
EXAMINATION OF APPLICATIONS TO PRESOPECTIVE PROGRAMS

In the next table, we examine the number of applicants to NIST and non-NIST postdoc positions and the number of those accepted to the respective programs. The proportion of applicants and awardees is contrasted with the relevant pool of potential applicants. In the case of applicants to NIST postdocs, the pool is the sum of U.S. citizens, who received a Ph.D. in the five years prior to the application year, including the application year, in science and engineering.48 We also look at the subset of Ph.D.s who were U.S. citizens and who intended to pursue a postdoctoral appointment. (These are doctorates who had definite plans for postdoctoral study or research.) The figure presented in a five-year moving average of those with definite plans.

In the case of applicants to non-NIST postdocs, the pool consists of all Ph.D.s in the five years prior to the application year, including the application year, in science and engineering.49 Again, we also look at the subset of Ph.D.s who intended to pursue a postdoctoral appointment. Data on Ph.D.s and those intending to do postdocs is taken from the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Earned Doctorates, described in Chapter 1. (Selected pages from the 2007 survey questionnaire is found in Appendix B.) For comparative purposes, we focus on data from 1965 through 2005, which is the most current SED data available at this time.

48

Science and engineering is defined as those fields on the SED associated with 000 to 599 field codes. In 16 cases the Ph.D. field was unknown. These cases were dropped from the analysis. This leaves a total of 667,255 individuals with S&E degrees.

49

This is a less-precise comparison group, as some of the postdoc positions in the non-NIST group are open to a subset, e.g., U.S. citizens or permanent residents, while others are open to U.S. citizens and foreign nationals.



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Appendix E EXAMINATION OF APPLICATIONS TO PRESOPECTIVE PROGRAMS In the next table, we examine the number of applicants to NIST and non-NIST postdoc positions and the number of those accepted to the respective programs. The proportion of applicants and awardees is contrasted with the relevant pool of potential applicants. In the case of applicants to NIST postdocs, the pool is the sum of U.S. citizens, who received a Ph.D. in the five years prior to the application year, including the application year, in science and engineering.48 We also look at the subset of Ph.D.s who were U.S. citizens and who intended to pursue a postdoctoral appointment. (These are doctorates who had definite plans for postdoctoral study or research.) The figure presented in a five-year moving average of those with definite plans. In the case of applicants to non-NIST postdocs, the pool consists of all Ph.D.s in the five years prior to the application year, including the application year, in science and engineering.49 Again, we also look at the subset of Ph.D.s who intended to pursue a postdoctoral appointment. Data on Ph.D.s and those intending to do postdocs is taken from the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Earned Doctorates, described in Chapter 1. (Selected pages from the 2007 survey questionnaire is found in Appendix B.) For comparative purposes, we focus on data from 1965 through 2005, which is the most current SED data available at this time. 48 Science and engineering is defined as those fields on the SED associated with 000 to 599 field codes. In 16 cases the Ph.D. field was unknown. These cases were dropped from the analysis. This leaves a total of 667,255 individuals with S&E degrees. 49 This is a less-precise comparison group, as some of the postdoc positions in the non-NIST group are open to a subset, e.g., U.S. citizens or permanent residents, while others are open to U.S. citizens and foreign nationals. 126

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APPENDIX TABLE E-1 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances, by Research Associateship Program A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications Accepted % 1965 26225 4607 18 64 61 95 1966 29173 5312 18 70 36 51 1967 32493 5979 18 93 53 57 1968 36198 6686 18 108 15 14 1969 40364 7572 19 190 16 8 1970 44731 8654 19 214 15 7 1971 49026 9818 20 252 16 6 1972 51840 10815 21 238 19 8 1973 53331 11497 22 153 20 13 1974 52574 11535 22 140 17 12 1975 50922 11563 23 144 17 12 1976 48563 11513 24 129 23 18 1977 46548 11448 25 111 22 20 1978 44691 11643 26 104 23 22 1979 44340 12307 28 105 24 23 1980 43772 12621 29 81 25 31 1981 43562 12780 29 87 22 25 1982 43745 13000 30 90 16 18 1983 43998 13165 30 131 24 18 1984 44163 13387 30 108 26 24 1985 44213 13487 31 102 28 27 N/A N/A 1986 44170 13738 31 48 1987 44147 14087 32 122 22 18 1988 44813 14595 33 128 22 17 1989 45502 14869 33 105 20 19 1990 46683 15309 33 134 25 19 1991 48316 15691 32 200 26 13 1992 49781 16037 32 226 31 14 1993 50895 16273 32 237 34 14 1994 52061 16582 32 254 40 16 1995 53121 16741 32 222 38 17 1996 53806 16775 31 156 57 37 1997 54973 16759 30 170 40 24 1998 56091 16688 30 120 58 48 1999 56379 16509 29 132 39 30 2000 56359 16513 29 118 57 48 2001 56016 16509 29 79 35 44 2002 54725 16536 30 143 52 36 2003 53577 16644 31 165 56 34 2004 53165 17141 32 166 48 29 2005 53129 17662 33 218 59 27 2006 N/A N/A N/A 183 59 32 2007 N/A N/A N/A 107 47 44 Total 6147 1383 22 127

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications Accepted % 1965 32522 5651 17 132 113 86 1966 36488 6519 18 191 135 71 1967 40892 7421 18 202 147 73 1968 45757 8366 18 350 179 51 1969 51091 9504 19 603 137 23 1970 56538 10860 19 795 172 22 1971 62029 12308 20 1131 216 19 1972 66074 13606 21 1317 253 19 1973 68702 14580 21 1187 202 17 1974 69315 14804 21 1214 205 17 1975 68445 14937 22 1165 228 20 1976 66309 14949 23 988 192 19 1977 64129 14799 23 776 140 18 1978 61943 14886 24 827 176 21 1979 60868 15494 25 779 180 23 1980 60034 15780 26 699 195 28 1981 59974 15841 26 753 221 29 1982 60675 16064 26 788 195 25 1983 61777 16270 26 732 196 27 1984 62887 16623 26 826 220 27 1985 64313 16947 26 827 239 29 1986 65918 17733 27 867 284 33 1987 67767 18752 28 907 260 29 1988 70666 20038 28 862 310 36 1989 73884 21135 29 881 315 36 1990 77765 22448 29 849 286 34 1991 82275 23711 29 1079 318 29 1992 86834 24964 29 1024 291 28 1993 90765 25898 29 1288 355 28 1994 94805 26972 28 1179 369 31 1995 98180 27790 28 863 275 32 1996 100994 28463 28 739 293 40 1997 103057 28601 28 743 283 38 1998 104670 28817 28 580 220 38 1999 104048 28629 28 523 207 40 2000 103244 28469 28 502 222 44 2001 101736 28046 28 547 293 54 2002 99768 28179 28 730 398 55 2003 98181 28656 29 808 308 38 2004 99059 29869 30 712 216 30 2005 101539 31487 31 755 170 23 2006 N/A N/A N/A 428 146 34 2007 N/A N/A N/A 150 50 33 Total 33298 9810 29 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 128

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Next, we disaggregated the total pool of potential applicants, applications, and acceptances by discipline. Perhaps, reflecting the changing nature of disciplines over the years, and the fact that applicants are supposed to identify a field for all degrees received, there are a large number of fields that applicants have put over the years. There were 1398 choices applicants could pick. Several are a bit confusing. As we are interested in doctoral degrees, applicants picked 536 different fields for their Ph.D.s. To simplify matters, we created a small group of major categories: agricultural sciences and natural resources; biological, biomedical, and health sciences; engineering; mathematical and computer sciences; and the physical sciences to examine. (A list of which fine fields are part of each of these major categories is found in Appendix F. There was some amount of subjectivity in this process, particularly in terms of whether a field should be included in these categories or not, but it should not effect the general results presented in the following tables.) We contrast these data to groups of Ph.D.s from the SED where agriculture and natural resources is anyone with a field code of 000 to 099; biological and health is anyone with a field code of 100-299; engineering is anyone with a field code of 300-399, mathematics and computer science is anyone with a field code of 400-499; and the physical science is anyone with a field code of 500-599. 129

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APPENDIX TABLE E-2 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances in the Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, by Research Associateship Program A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 1780 133 7 0 0 0 N/A 1966 1817 130 7 1 1 0 0 1967 1877 136 7 0 0 0 N/A 1968 1955 125 6 0 0 0 N/A 1969 2131 145 7 0 0 0 N/A 1970 2386 152 6 0 0 0 N/A 1971 2706 175 6 0 0 0 N/A 1972 2943 187 6 0 0 0 N/A 1973 3153 224 7 0 0 0 N/A 1974 3185 230 7 0 0 0 N/A 1975 3209 242 8 0 0 0 N/A 1976 3107 251 8 0 0 0 N/A 1977 3041 248 8 0 0 0 N/A 1978 3016 232 8 0 0 0 N/A 1979 3060 241 8 0 0 0 N/A 1980 3071 259 8 0 0 0 N/A 1981 3164 268 8 1 1 0 0 1982 3335 316 9 0 0 0 N/A 1983 3440 348 10 0 0 0 N/A 1984 3523 392 11 0 0 0 N/A 1985 3623 416 11 0 0 0 N/A 1986 3597 454 13 0 0 N/A N/A 1987 3510 479 14 0 0 0 N/A 1988 3401 513 15 0 0 0 N/A 1989 3389 543 16 0 0 0 N/A 1990 3321 579 17 0 0 0 N/A 1991 3294 595 18 0 0 0 N/A 1992 3210 596 19 0 0 0 N/A 1993 3093 577 19 0 0 0 N/A 1994 2976 559 19 0 0 0 N/A 1995 2846 521 18 0 0 0 N/A 1996 2746 490 18 0 0 0 N/A 1997 2708 462 17 0 0 0 N/A 1998 2737 457 17 0 0 0 N/A 1999 2670 434 16 0 0 0 N/A 2000 2602 418 16 0 0 0 N/A 2001 2523 418 17 0 0 0 N/A 2002 2415 421 17 0 0 0 N/A 2003 2367 430 18 0 0 0 N/A 2004 2435 476 20 0 0 0 N/A 2005 2498 510 20 0 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2006 0 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2007 0 0 0 N/A Total 2 0 0 0 130

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 2467 192 8 3 2 2 67 1966 2605 199 8 2 1 0 0 1967 2741 225 8 4 2 1 25 1968 2959 239 8 4 1 2 50 1969 3257 275 8 6 1 1 17 1970 3599 294 8 5 1 1 20 1971 4096 337 8 14 1 2 14 1972 4507 355 8 7 1 1 14 1973 4857 397 8 13 1 0 0 1974 5046 407 8 9 1 0 0 1975 5195 427 8 9 1 2 22 1976 5072 427 8 8 1 1 13 1977 4983 428 9 10 1 0 0 1978 4962 408 8 5 1 0 0 1979 4967 404 8 3 0 0 0 1980 4972 412 8 5 1 1 20 1981 5173 423 8 15 2 4 27 1982 5375 469 9 6 1 0 0 1983 5535 500 9 15 2 2 13 1984 5682 563 10 8 1 1 13 1985 5868 600 10 11 1 2 18 1986 5873 681 12 8 1 2 25 1987 5858 727 12 8 1 1 13 1988 5856 808 14 12 1 4 33 1989 5952 893 15 13 1 4 31 1990 6015 992 16 4 0 2 50 1991 6101 1036 17 6 1 3 50 1992 6190 1104 18 8 1 2 25 1993 6125 1103 18 11 1 5 45 1994 6113 1103 18 9 1 3 33 1995 6004 1068 18 14 2 6 43 1996 5968 1059 18 15 2 5 33 1997 5880 1028 17 23 3 9 39 1998 5969 1060 18 5 1 1 20 1999 5846 1061 18 8 2 3 38 2000 5719 1057 18 13 3 6 46 2001 5526 1063 19 7 1 3 43 2002 5426 1087 20 11 2 6 55 2003 5274 1100 21 7 1 4 57 2004 5312 1161 22 14 2 1 7 2005 5388 1215 23 10 1 3 30 2006 N/A N/A N/A 5 1 2 40 2007 N/A N/A N/A 4 3 0 0 Total 377 1 98 26 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 131

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APPENDIX TABLE E-3. Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances in the Biological, Biomedical, and Health Sciences, by Research Associateship Program A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 6792 1945 29 0 0 N/A N/A 1966 7560 2244 30 0 0 N/A N/A 1967 8381 2542 30 0 0 N/A N/A 1968 9512 3004 32 0 0 N/A N/A 1969 10853 3464 32 1 1 1 100 1970 12329 4046 33 0 0 N/A N/A 1971 13988 4632 33 2 1 0 0 1972 15294 5142 34 0 0 N/A N/A 1973 16267 5399 33 0 0 N/A N/A 1974 16584 5491 33 1 1 0 0 1975 16710 5647 34 0 0 N/A N/A 1976 16605 5808 35 0 0 N/A N/A 1977 16574 6042 36 2 2 0 0 1978 16558 6466 39 1 1 0 0 1979 17017 7093 42 2 2 2 100 1980 17495 7532 43 0 0 N/A N/A 1981 17936 7919 44 0 0 N/A N/A 1982 18482 8214 44 4 4 0 0 1983 18785 8382 45 2 2 0 0 1984 19074 8495 45 4 4 1 25 1985 19021 8484 45 2 2 0 0 1986 18865 8507 45 0 0 N/A N/A 1987 18573 8493 46 1 1 0 0 1988 18641 8644 46 0 0 N/A N/A 1989 18617 8674 47 0 0 N/A N/A 1990 18831 8812 47 2 1 2 100 1991 19230 8879 46 2 1 0 0 1992 19781 9041 46 3 1 1 33 1993 20322 9138 45 0 0 N/A N/A 1994 20856 9240 44 1 0 0 0 1995 21374 9235 43 5 2 0 0 1996 21762 9253 43 4 3 2 50 1997 22252 9238 42 2 1 0 0 1998 22770 9208 40 5 4 3 60 1999 23018 9144 40 4 3 2 50 2000 23609 9280 39 6 5 5 83 2001 24101 9395 39 0 0 N/A N/A 2002 24395 9553 39 4 3 2 50 2003 24509 9639 39 5 3 2 40 2004 25033 10026 40 5 3 3 60 2005 25357 10335 41 7 3 3 43 2006 N/A N/A N/A 1 1 0 0 2007 N/A N/A N/A 2 2 1 50 Total 80 1 30 38 132

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 8419 2350 28 37 28 29 78 1966 9383 2714 29 47 25 30 64 1967 10415 3078 30 58 29 37 64 1968 11821 3635 31 71 20 41 58 1969 13366 4169 31 128 21 26 20 1970 15033 4831 32 105 13 26 25 1971 16919 5489 32 100 9 27 27 1972 18449 6058 33 119 9 21 18 1973 19560 6369 33 108 9 23 21 1974 20131 6495 32 207 17 27 13 1975 20315 6654 33 163 14 25 15 1976 20196 6824 34 142 14 24 17 1977 20124 7068 35 155 20 22 14 1978 20018 7445 37 203 25 29 14 1979 20272 8045 40 172 22 24 14 1980 20702 8475 41 136 19 30 22 1981 21086 8799 42 183 24 49 27 1982 21670 9079 42 149 19 39 26 1983 22022 9238 42 139 19 42 30 1984 22410 9369 42 161 19 55 34 1985 22543 9404 42 219 26 65 30 1986 22659 9537 42 254 29 90 35 1987 22719 9696 43 210 23 75 36 1988 23332 10068 43 237 27 108 46 1989 23820 10335 43 225 26 84 37 1990 24582 10813 44 257 30 89 35 1991 25696 11331 44 229 21 78 34 1992 26968 11915 44 220 21 79 36 1993 28264 12455 44 254 20 78 31 1994 29672 13044 44 248 21 98 40 1995 31093 13444 43 201 23 66 33 1996 32451 13876 43 149 20 76 51 1997 33749 14102 42 151 20 69 46 1998 34805 14243 41 132 23 63 48 1999 35295 14243 40 100 19 42 42 2000 36034 14349 40 99 20 55 56 2001 36220 14210 39 94 17 43 46 2002 36354 14238 39 111 15 58 52 2003 36335 14316 39 125 15 60 48 2004 37005 14737 40 110 15 46 42 2005 37706 15222 40 122 16 39 32 2006 N/A N/A N/A 85 20 39 46 2007 N/A N/A N/A 27 18 12 44 Total 6442 19 2138 33 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 133

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APPENDIX TABLE E-4 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances in Engineering, by Research Associateship Program A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 5564 276 5 7 11 6 86 1966 6529 341 5 6 9 3 50 1967 7527 382 5 10 11 9 90 1968 8592 392 5 7 6 2 29 1969 9706 411 4 13 7 1 8 1970 10647 415 4 23 11 3 13 1971 11383 452 4 39 15 3 8 1972 11789 501 4 52 22 5 10 1973 11838 570 5 16 10 4 25 1974 11195 562 5 15 11 2 13 1975 10396 562 5 17 12 2 12 1976 9528 574 6 22 17 6 27 1977 8670 568 7 14 13 3 21 1978 7777 516 7 18 17 8 44 1979 7313 517 7 15 14 3 20 1980 6850 488 7 13 16 5 38 1981 6462 423 7 15 17 7 47 1982 6158 369 6 10 11 1 10 1983 6060 361 6 20 15 7 35 1984 6005 375 6 16 15 4 25 1985 6028 396 7 16 16 5 31 1986 6240 446 7 5 10 N/A N/A 1987 6626 540 8 33 27 6 18 1988 7242 610 8 25 20 6 24 1989 7868 688 9 21 20 7 33 1990 8546 779 9 30 22 1 3 1991 9250 867 9 42 21 5 12 1992 9802 941 10 67 30 6 9 1993 10250 1073 10 92 39 14 15 1994 10599 1191 11 87 34 10 11 1995 11028 1304 12 60 27 10 17 1996 11537 1411 12 49 31 20 41 1997 12165 1513 12 59 35 15 25 1998 12505 1505 12 25 21 12 48 1999 12777 1548 12 40 30 12 30 2000 12614 1547 12 33 28 16 48 2001 12171 1501 12 21 27 6 29 2002 11325 1434 13 35 24 17 49 2003 10668 1466 14 53 32 18 34 2004 10126 1497 15 55 33 18 33 2005 9902 1588 16 91 42 23 25 2006 N/A N/A N/A 69 38 21 30 2007 N/A N/A N/A 32 30 16 50 Total 1388 23 348 25 134

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 7251 378 5 7 5 7 100 1966 8612 474 6 16 8 16 100 1967 10000 538 5 24 12 24 100 1968 11498 584 5 21 6 13 62 1969 13099 638 5 63 10 16 25 1970 14459 685 5 145 18 41 28 1971 15656 785 5 376 33 63 17 1972 16555 954 6 417 32 76 18 1973 17064 1108 6 305 26 60 20 1974 16946 1155 7 262 22 61 23 1975 16514 1194 7 297 25 60 20 1976 15850 1244 8 253 26 46 18 1977 14990 1192 8 144 19 27 19 1978 14049 1144 8 150 18 26 17 1979 13392 1154 9 144 18 36 25 1980 12869 1158 9 118 17 38 32 1981 12563 1081 9 138 18 43 31 1982 12566 1041 8 152 19 35 23 1983 12924 1032 8 155 21 37 24 1984 13346 1090 8 208 25 45 22 1985 14033 1155 8 150 18 30 20 1986 14880 1336 9 148 17 49 33 1987 15946 1560 10 181 20 42 23 1988 17351 1819 10 164 19 48 29 1989 18982 2074 11 173 20 58 34 1990 20710 2314 11 157 18 40 25 1991 22548 2518 11 247 23 68 28 1992 24274 2733 11 232 23 65 28 1993 25786 2953 11 340 26 81 24 1994 27063 3124 12 289 25 74 26 1995 28177 3338 12 204 24 63 31 1996 29273 3537 12 176 24 56 32 1997 29949 3628 12 159 21 53 33 1998 30172 3624 12 111 19 40 36 1999 29682 3627 12 126 24 39 31 2000 28997 3573 12 117 23 48 41 2001 28196 3445 12 136 25 82 60 2002 27159 3486 13 214 29 128 60 2003 26517 3741 14 278 34 91 33 2004 26962 4187 16 202 28 43 21 2005 28043 4682 17 201 27 40 20 2006 N/A N/A N/A 140 33 43 31 2007 N/A N/A N/A 43 29 10 23 Total 7583 23 2061 27 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 135

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APPENDIX TABLE E-5 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances in Mathematical and Computer Sciences, by Research Associateship Program A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 2040 164 8 4 6 4 100 1966 2400 183 8 3 4 3 100 1967 2776 183 7 1 1 1 100 1968 3175 181 6 6 6 1 17 1969 3576 188 5 11 6 1 9 1970 4031 203 5 6 3 2 33 1971 4413 205 5 13 5 2 15 1972 4764 213 4 16 7 1 6 1973 4926 227 5 11 7 2 18 1974 4914 214 4 12 9 3 25 1975 4733 201 4 18 13 4 22 1976 4469 195 4 10 8 0 0 1977 4153 188 5 8 7 1 13 1978 3898 182 5 5 5 2 40 1979 3737 194 5 6 6 2 33 1980 3565 207 6 1 1 1 100 1981 3467 220 6 5 6 0 0 1982 3348 243 7 2 2 0 0 1983 3238 253 8 0 0 N/A N/A 1984 3109 263 8 2 2 0 0 1985 2998 259 9 3 3 1 33 1986 2916 276 9 3 6 N/A N/A 1987 2904 278 10 1 1 0 0 1988 2936 287 10 1 1 0 0 1989 3082 311 10 2 2 0 0 1990 3241 347 11 2 1 1 50 1991 3522 384 11 8 4 2 25 1992 3811 427 11 8 4 2 25 1993 4108 479 12 8 3 1 13 1994 4306 513 12 14 6 6 43 1995 4619 560 12 13 6 4 31 1996 4681 588 13 8 5 2 25 1997 4763 598 13 6 4 2 33 1998 4900 612 12 6 5 1 17 1999 4930 629 13 4 3 2 50 2000 4799 626 13 4 3 2 50 2001 4727 641 14 0 0 N/A N/A 2002 4535 666 15 5 3 2 40 2003 4335 717 17 5 3 1 20 2004 4228 791 19 3 2 0 0 2005 4206 873 21 4 2 1 25 2006 N/A N/A N/A 4 2 2 50 2007 N/A N/A N/A 6 6 2 33 Total 258 4 64 25 136

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 2476 198 8 3 2 3 100 1966 2913 222 8 5 3 4 80 1967 3355 231 7 5 2 5 100 1968 3843 234 6 33 9 20 61 1969 4325 260 6 17 3 3 18 1970 4865 284 6 25 3 7 28 1971 5334 296 6 34 3 4 12 1972 5785 319 6 47 4 5 11 1973 6047 348 6 58 5 11 19 1974 6188 331 5 51 4 6 12 1975 6110 330 5 65 6 8 12 1976 5875 318 5 35 4 7 20 1977 5558 302 5 18 2 3 17 1978 5284 299 6 26 3 10 38 1979 5052 311 6 16 2 1 6 1980 4867 321 7 17 2 2 12 1981 4824 350 7 29 4 5 17 1982 4800 380 8 24 3 8 33 1983 4828 408 8 23 3 4 17 1984 4842 437 9 17 2 3 18 1985 4878 455 9 26 3 5 19 1986 5046 520 10 32 4 9 28 1987 5295 572 11 26 3 6 23 1988 5572 611 11 22 3 6 27 1989 6050 682 11 15 2 5 33 1990 6649 785 12 38 4 16 42 1991 7359 881 12 40 4 9 23 1992 8097 995 12 36 4 8 22 1993 8859 1101 12 66 5 13 20 1994 9409 1177 13 38 3 10 26 1995 9999 1269 13 25 3 7 28 1996 10203 1332 13 34 5 10 29 1997 10308 1348 13 34 5 10 29 1998 10386 1390 13 22 4 3 14 1999 10304 1452 14 27 5 9 33 2000 10027 1459 15 18 4 4 22 2001 9817 1488 15 28 5 15 54 2002 9511 1596 17 35 5 19 54 2003 9266 1737 19 42 5 11 26 2004 9351 1903 20 31 4 9 29 2005 9780 2128 22 20 3 7 35 2006 N/A N/A N/A 27 6 9 33 2007 N/A N/A N/A 11 7 4 36 Total 1241 4 323 26 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 137

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APPENDIX TABLE E-6 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances in the Physical Sciences, by Research Associateship Program. A. NIST Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 10049 2089 21 53 83 51 96 1966 10867 2414 22 60 86 30 50 1967 11932 2736 23 82 88 43 52 1968 12964 2984 23 95 88 12 13 1969 14098 3364 24 165 87 13 8 1970 15338 3838 25 185 86 10 5 1971 16536 4354 26 198 79 11 6 1972 17050 4772 28 170 71 13 8 1973 17147 5077 30 126 82 14 11 1974 16696 5038 30 112 80 12 11 1975 15874 4911 31 109 76 11 10 1976 14854 4685 32 97 75 17 18 1977 14110 4402 31 87 78 18 21 1978 13442 4247 32 80 77 13 16 1979 13213 4262 32 82 78 17 21 1980 12791 4135 32 67 83 19 28 1981 12533 3950 32 66 76 15 23 1982 12422 3858 31 74 82 15 20 1983 12475 3821 31 109 83 17 16 1984 12452 3862 31 86 80 21 24 1985 12543 3932 31 81 79 22 27 1986 12552 4055 32 40 83 N/A N/A 1987 12534 4297 34 87 71 16 18 1988 12593 4541 36 102 80 16 16 1989 12546 4653 37 82 78 13 16 1990 12744 4792 38 100 75 21 21 1991 13020 4966 38 148 74 19 13 1992 13177 5032 38 148 65 22 15 1993 13122 5006 38 137 58 19 14 1994 13324 5079 38 152 60 24 16 1995 13254 5121 39 144 65 24 17 1996 13080 5033 38 95 61 33 35 1997 13085 4948 38 103 61 23 22 1998 13179 4906 37 84 70 42 50 1999 12984 4754 37 84 64 23 27 2000 12735 4642 36 75 64 34 45 2001 12494 4554 36 58 73 29 50 2002 12055 4462 37 99 69 31 31 2003 11698 4392 38 102 62 35 34 2004 11343 4351 38 103 62 27 26 2005 11166 4356 39 116 53 32 28 N/A 2006 N/A N/A 109 60 36 33 N/A 2007 N/A N/A 67 63 28 42 Total 4419 72 941 21 138

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B. Other Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdoc % Applications % of All Accepted % 1965 11909 2533 21 82 62 72 88 1966 12975 2910 22 121 63 85 70 1967 14381 3349 23 111 55 80 72 1968 15636 3674 23 221 63 103 47 1969 17044 4162 24 389 65 91 23 1970 18582 4766 26 515 65 97 19 1971 20024 5401 27 607 54 120 20 1972 20778 5920 28 727 55 150 21 1973 21174 6358 30 703 59 108 15 1974 21004 6416 31 685 56 111 16 1975 20311 6332 31 631 54 133 21 1976 19316 6136 32 550 56 114 21 1977 18474 5809 31 449 58 88 20 1978 17630 5590 32 443 54 111 25 1979 17185 5580 32 444 57 119 27 1980 16624 5414 33 423 61 124 29 1981 16328 5188 32 388 52 120 31 1982 16264 5095 31 457 58 113 25 1983 16468 5092 31 400 55 111 28 1984 16607 5164 31 432 52 116 27 1985 16991 5333 31 421 51 137 33 1986 17460 5659 32 425 49 134 32 1987 17949 6197 35 482 53 136 28 1988 18555 6732 36 427 50 144 34 1989 19080 7151 37 455 52 164 36 1990 19809 7544 38 393 46 139 35 1991 20571 7945 39 557 52 160 29 1992 21305 8217 39 528 52 137 26 1993 21731 8286 38 617 48 178 29 1994 22548 8524 38 595 50 184 31 1995 22907 8671 38 419 49 133 32 1996 23099 8659 37 365 49 146 40 1997 23171 8495 37 376 51 142 38 1998 23338 8500 36 310 53 113 36 1999 22921 8246 36 262 50 114 44 2000 22467 8031 36 255 51 109 43 2001 21977 7840 36 282 52 150 53 2002 21318 7772 36 359 49 187 52 2003 20789 7762 37 356 44 142 40 2004 20429 7881 39 355 50 117 33 2005 20622 8240 40 402 53 81 20 N/A 2006 N/A N/A 171 40 53 31 N/A 2007 N/A N/A 65 43 24 37 Total 17655 53 5190 29 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 139

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APPENDIX TABLE E-7 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptances, by Gender and Research Associateship Program A. NIST Female Doctoral Pool (%) Applications Accepted Year Ph.D.s Intending to be Postdocs Women Men Women (%) Women Men Women (%) 1965 5 8 2 62 3 2 59 3 1966 5 8 1 69 1 0 36 0 1967 6 9 2 91 2 0 53 0 1968 6 9 1 107 1 1 14 7 1969 6 10 7 183 4 1 15 6 1970 7 10 5 209 2 1 14 7 1971 7 10 3 249 1 0 16 0 1972 7 11 6 232 3 0 19 0 1973 8 11 8 145 5 2 18 10 1974 9 12 7 133 5 0 17 0 1975 10 13 12 132 8 1 16 6 1976 11 14 3 126 2 1 22 4 1977 12 16 5 106 5 1 21 5 1978 13 17 5 99 5 0 23 0 1979 14 18 10 95 10 2 22 8 1980 16 19 7 74 9 2 23 8 1981 17 21 7 80 8 1 21 5 1982 19 22 9 81 10 0 16 0 1983 20 24 12 119 9 1 23 4 1984 21 25 12 96 11 3 23 12 1985 23 26 18 84 18 6 22 21 1986 24 27 11 37 23 N/A N/A N/A 1987 25 27 12 110 10 3 19 14 1988 25 28 17 111 13 3 19 14 1989 27 29 16 89 15 5 15 25 1990 27 30 15 119 11 3 22 12 1991 28 31 21 179 11 3 23 12 1992 29 31 27 199 12 6 25 19 1993 30 32 28 209 12 4 30 12 1994 30 33 36 218 14 13 27 33 1995 31 33 34 188 15 7 31 18 1996 32 34 28 128 18 7 50 12 1997 32 35 34 136 20 10 30 25 1998 33 36 21 99 18 10 48 17 1999 33 36 23 109 17 5 34 13 2000 34 36 18 100 15 10 47 18 2001 35 37 20 59 25 13 22 37 2002 36 37 29 114 20 11 41 21 2003 37 38 30 135 18 11 45 20 2004 38 39 45 121 27 13 35 27 2005 39 39 40 178 18 16 43 27 N/A N/A 2006 44 139 24 16 43 27 N/A N/A 2007 30 77 28 13 34 28 Total 721 5426 12 207 1176 15 140

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B. Other Female Doctoral Pool (%) Applications Accepted Intending to be Year Ph.D.s Postdocs Women Men Women (%) Women Men Women (%) 1965 5 8 4 128 3 4 109 4 1966 6 9 5 186 3 2 133 1 1967 6 9 9 193 4 6 141 4 1968 6 9 5 345 1 3 176 2 1969 6 10 20 583 3 3 134 2 1970 7 10 16 779 2 2 170 1 1971 7 10 36 1095 3 11 205 5 1972 7 10 47 1270 4 8 245 3 1973 8 11 47 1140 4 5 197 2 1974 9 11 61 1153 5 9 196 4 1975 9 13 38 1127 3 9 219 4 1976 10 14 64 924 6 17 175 9 1977 11 15 70 706 9 14 126 10 1978 12 16 79 748 10 19 157 11 1979 13 17 84 695 11 15 165 8 1980 14 18 67 632 10 20 175 10 1981 15 19 87 666 12 28 193 13 1982 16 21 77 711 10 18 177 9 1983 17 22 86 646 12 32 164 16 1984 18 23 102 724 12 30 190 14 1985 19 24 120 707 15 43 196 18 1986 20 24 112 755 13 42 242 15 1987 21 25 136 771 15 54 206 21 1988 21 25 144 718 17 65 245 21 1989 22 26 139 742 16 60 255 19 1990 22 26 132 717 16 47 239 16 1991 23 27 192 887 18 61 257 19 1992 23 27 157 867 15 54 237 19 1993 24 28 219 1069 17 74 281 21 1994 24 29 176 1003 15 70 299 19 1995 25 29 150 713 17 59 216 21 1996 26 30 122 617 17 60 233 20 1997 27 31 132 611 18 60 223 21 1998 28 31 124 456 21 59 161 27 1999 28 32 105 418 20 46 161 22 2000 29 32 105 397 21 51 171 23 2001 30 33 117 430 21 64 229 22 2002 31 34 162 568 22 91 307 23 2003 32 34 167 641 21 69 239 22 2004 33 35 184 528 26 63 153 29 2005 33 35 186 569 25 50 120 29 N/A N/A 2006 109 319 25 47 99 32 N/A N/A 2007 40 110 27 13 37 26 Total 4234 29064 13 1557 8253 16 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 141

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APPENDIX TABLE E-8 Doctoral Pool of Potential Postdocs, Applications, and Acceptance by Race/Ethnicity and Research Associateship Program A. NIST Doctoral Pool Applications Accepted URM Intending Ph.D. to be Minority Postdoc URM URM Year (%) (%) (%) (%) White URM Asian Unk. White URM Asian Unk. 1980 3 1 66 3 5 7 4 23 1 0 1 4 1981 3 2 74 2 1 10 3 21 0 0 1 0 1982 3 2 5 0 0 85 0 0 0 0 16 N/A 1983 3 2 103 2 2 24 2 18 0 1 5 0 1984 3 2 86 0 2 20 0 23 0 0 3 0 1985 3 2 75 2 3 22 3 24 0 1 3 0 1986 3 2 37 1 2 8 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1987 3 3 84 5 4 29 5 15 0 1 6 0 1988 3 3 105 1 5 17 1 19 0 1 2 0 1989 4 3 98 0 3 4 0 20 0 0 0 0 1990 4 3 114 1 8 11 1 22 0 1 2 0 1991 4 3 159 7 12 22 4 24 1 0 1 4 1992 4 4 189 1 14 22 0 30 0 1 0 0 1993 4 4 168 8 14 47 4 27 2 0 5 7 1994 5 4 166 6 12 70 3 27 1 1 11 3 1995 5 4 158 9 17 38 5 24 3 4 7 10 1996 5 5 96 3 8 49 3 38 2 3 14 5 1997 6 5 135 12 8 15 8 33 3 2 2 8 1998 6 5 85 9 9 17 9 39 4 6 9 8 1999 6 5 91 9 6 26 8 28 1 3 7 3 2000 7 6 86 11 9 12 10 42 6 4 5 12 2001 7 6 60 5 10 4 7 27 4 2 2 12 2002 7 7 120 7 10 6 5 43 4 4 1 8 2003 8 7 142 5 12 6 3 50 1 3 2 2 2004 8 7 140 10 13 3 6 43 3 2 0 6 2005 8 8 180 6 28 4 3 49 1 8 1 2 N/A N/A 2006 154 10 14 5 6 49 3 5 2 5 N/A N/A 2007 87 6 11 3 6 39 3 5 0 6 Total 3063 141 242 586 4 797 43 58 108 5 142

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B. Other Doctoral Pool Applications Accepted URM Intending Ph.D. to be Minority Postdoc URM URM Year (%) (%) (%) (%) White URM Asian Unk. White URM Asian Unk. 1980 5 2 284 7 11 397 2 97 2 3 93 2 1981 6 3 356 4 8 385 1 125 2 3 91 2 1982 6 3 57 1 0 730 2 20 0 0 175 0 1983 6 3 245 4 11 472 2 86 2 5 103 2 1984 6 3 311 5 21 489 1 117 0 6 97 0 1985 6 3 283 4 20 520 1 103 2 5 129 2 1986 6 4 346 8 16 497 2 129 2 6 147 1 1987 6 4 308 9 9 581 3 111 5 4 140 4 1988 6 4 403 1 19 439 0 175 1 9 125 1 1989 6 5 380 7 12 482 2 162 3 6 144 2 1990 6 5 400 19 64 366 4 154 3 9 120 2 1991 6 5 502 25 88 464 4 167 7 19 125 4 1992 6 5 465 25 81 453 4 163 6 23 99 3 1993 6 5 456 21 45 766 4 177 4 13 161 2 1994 6 5 378 13 70 718 3 157 4 21 187 2 1995 6 5 301 23 61 478 6 119 7 17 132 5 1996 6 5 291 31 72 345 8 144 6 33 110 3 1997 6 5 468 31 118 126 5 193 8 45 37 3 1998 7 5 316 22 79 163 5 139 10 25 46 6 1999 7 5 247 18 79 179 5 110 3 29 65 2 2000 7 6 313 21 66 102 5 144 10 28 40 5 2001 7 6 370 29 100 48 6 206 16 49 22 6 2002 8 7 449 42 163 76 6 264 22 79 33 6 2003 8 7 464 34 253 57 5 212 11 62 23 4 2004 8 7 434 28 228 22 4 163 6 42 5 3 2005 8 8 414 30 270 41 4 121 6 37 6 4 N/A N/A 2006 237 23 153 15 6 106 2 35 3 1 N/A N/A 2007 99 4 43 4 3 43 0 5 2 0 Total 9577 489 2160 9415 4 3907 150 618 2460 3 Source: Doctoral pool data from NSF, Survey of Earned Doctorates; other data from NRC DataRAP database. 143

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APPENDIX TABLE E-9 Applicant’s Marital Status, by Research Associateship Program NIST/NRC RAP OTHER RAP NIST (%) Other (%) Year Married Single Total Married Single Total Married Married 1965 40 24 64 97 35 132 63 73 1966 59 11 70 135 53 188 84 72 1967 68 24 92 154 41 195 74 79 1968 72 32 104 242 83 325 69 74 1969 137 49 186 419 143 562 74 75 1970 168 46 214 605 178 783 79 77 1971 191 61 252 846 278 1124 76 75 1972 173 65 238 964 353 1317 73 73 1973 113 40 153 879 308 1187 74 74 1974 102 38 140 889 325 1214 73 73 1975 98 46 144 875 290 1165 68 75 1976 82 47 129 687 301 988 64 70 1977 71 40 111 537 239 776 64 69 1978 59 45 104 524 303 827 57 63 1979 50 55 105 509 268 777 48 66 1980 40 41 81 460 239 699 49 66 1981 41 46 87 488 265 753 47 65 1982 38 51 89 506 277 783 43 65 1983 57 74 131 494 234 728 44 68 1984 46 62 108 540 283 823 43 66 1985 42 60 102 504 321 825 41 61 1986 21 27 48 547 315 862 44 63 1987 60 62 122 579 317 896 49 65 1988 56 71 127 556 297 853 44 65 1989 45 60 105 544 334 878 43 62 1990 62 72 134 563 282 845 46 67 1991 94 106 200 685 389 1074 47 64 1992 104 122 226 669 353 1022 46 65 1993 114 120 234 859 427 1286 49 67 1994 117 137 254 751 426 1177 46 64 1995 107 114 221 503 360 863 48 58 1996 76 79 155 468 269 737 49 64 1997 70 99 169 456 286 742 41 61 1998 44 75 119 333 241 574 37 58 1999 60 71 131 314 204 518 46 61 2000 58 60 118 300 199 499 49 60 2001 29 50 79 332 215 547 37 61 2002 53 90 143 479 249 728 37 66 2003 66 98 164 513 288 801 40 64 2004 83 83 166 395 314 709 50 56 2005 104 113 217 431 318 749 48 58 2006 77 106 183 261 165 426 42 61 2007 41 66 107 77 73 150 38 51 Total 3288 2838 6126 21969 11138 33107 54 66 144

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APPENDIX TABLE E-10 Awardees’ Marital Status, by Research Associateship Program NIST/NRC RAP OTHER RAP NIST (%) Other (%) Year Married Single Total Married Single Total Married Married 1965 37 24 61 80 33 113 61 71 1966 31 5 36 95 37 132 86 72 1967 41 12 53 109 32 141 77 77 1968 9 6 15 123 37 160 60 77 1969 11 2 13 98 35 133 85 74 1970 8 7 15 136 34 170 53 80 1971 13 3 16 164 51 215 81 76 1972 15 4 19 194 59 253 79 77 1973 14 6 20 153 49 202 70 76 1974 13 4 17 164 41 205 76 80 1975 12 5 17 169 59 228 71 74 1976 15 8 23 129 63 192 65 67 1977 13 9 22 101 39 140 59 72 1978 12 11 23 122 54 176 52 69 1979 14 10 24 127 51 178 58 71 1980 13 12 25 133 62 195 52 68 1981 9 13 22 142 79 221 41 64 1982 5 10 15 123 72 195 33 63 1983 9 15 24 120 75 195 38 62 1984 10 16 26 137 82 219 38 63 1985 14 14 28 138 99 237 50 58 1986 N/A N/A N/A 174 108 282 N/A 62 1987 11 11 22 156 104 260 50 60 1988 7 15 22 198 112 310 32 64 1989 11 9 20 196 119 315 55 62 1990 10 15 25 195 91 286 40 68 1991 16 10 26 191 126 317 62 60 1992 13 18 31 177 112 289 42 61 1993 16 18 34 215 140 355 47 61 1994 16 24 40 229 140 369 40 62 1995 15 23 38 154 121 275 39 56 1996 27 30 57 191 102 293 47 65 1997 15 25 40 162 121 283 38 57 1998 20 38 58 135 84 219 34 62 1999 16 23 39 129 78 207 41 62 2000 28 29 57 133 87 220 49 60 2001 10 25 35 187 106 293 29 64 2002 19 33 52 271 127 398 37 68 2003 23 32 55 197 110 307 42 64 2004 26 22 48 125 90 215 54 58 2005 26 33 59 96 74 170 44 56 2006 27 32 59 94 52 146 46 64 2007 19 28 47 21 29 50 40 42 Total 689 689 1378 6383 3376 9759 50 65 145