The report is organized in a chronological way, following the trajectory of doctorates from application, to award, to their experiences in the Program, and concluding with a career assessment of awardees after their appointments have ended. Chapter Two examines applicants to the NIST/NRC RAP and compares them to applicants to other RAPs. It also examines applications and awards disaggregated across several dimensions, such as gender or doctoral-granting institution. Chapter Three examines the experiences of NIST RAs and RAs at other federal agencies, as well as research associates’ views on the value of the Program. Chapter Four examines the careers of former research associates. Chapter Five presents an overall summary of preliminary results and recommendations.