to certain goals, which can lead in turn to different emotional reactions to the same event (Mesquita, 2001; Parkinson, Fischer, and Manstead, 2005). As the military increasingly trains and conducts missions with forces from different cultures, detailed knowledge of those cultural differences, in particular the emotional aspects of those cultures, will be important to mission success. For example, what gestures do people from a particular culture find threatening? What gestures signify respect? Are there culture-specific triggers of aggression? When negotiating with people from a given culture, do they have certain goals that differ from ours? Are there culture-specific ways of motivating people? Are there culture-specific ways of eliciting cooperation? It will take many years for scientists to determine the answers to these questions.