2005). She received a B.S. in biology and an A.B. in philosophy from the University of Rochester in 1968 and a Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1971. She is the author of five books and over 120 articles.

Julie A. Theriot is an associate professor of biochemistry and microbiology and immunology at the Stanford University School of Medicine. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Theriot studies the transformation of chemical energy to mechanical energy in cell movement. Her work focuses on understanding the mechanisms of actin-based movement of the intracytoplasmic pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri. She is investigating these systems at the molecular level to yield insights into the mechanisms of whole-cell actin-based motility and bacterial pathogenesis. Other research interests include establishment and maintenance of bacterial polarity, quantitative videomicroscopy, and image and motion analysis. Honors include a Whitehead fellowship and a Packard fellowship for science and engineering. Dr. Theriot recently received the School of Medicine Award for Graduate Teaching and was named a 2004 MacArthur fellow. She served on the National Research Council Committee on Bridges to Independence: Identifying Opportunities for and Challenges to Fostering the Independence of Young Investigators in the Life Sciences and the Committee on Transforming Biological Information into New Therapies: A Strategy for Developing Antiviral Drugs for Smallpox.

Gunter P. Wagner is the Alison Richard Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University and a noted researcher and theorist of developmental genetics and evolution. He was chair of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in 1997-2001 and 2005-2008. Prior to joining Yale, he was an associate professor at the University of Vienna. Dr. Wagner and other researchers in his laboratory use mathematical modeling to understand the complex adaptations of organisms, with a focus on the molecular evolution of Hox genes and their role in the origin and early evolution of tetrapod limbs. For example, he has compared the expression of Hox genes between the primitive limbs of salamander and the highly derived limbs of frogs to understand the morphological evolution of these organisms. In another project, his lab studies the evolutionary history of Hox genes in primitive vertebrates and their correlation with the emergence of the developmental body plan of higher vertebrates. He and his team have also developed new mathematical techniques in order to better understand gene interactions and evolutionary biology. Dr. Wagner received his Ph.D. from the University of Vienna. He was awarded a MacArthur fellowship in 1992 and the Alexander Von Humboldt Research Prize in 2005. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

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