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DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2006. Biomass program—Integrated corn-based bio-refinery. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.

Graboski, M. S. 2002. Fossil energy use in the manufacture of corn ethanol. National Corn Growers Association. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.

Hill, J., E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany. 2006. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol fuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:11206-11210.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006. Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework. ISO 14040 Ed. 2. Geneva, Switzerland.

Kim, S., and B. Dale. 2005. Life cycle inventory information of the United States electricity system. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10:294-304.

Kim, S., B. Dale, and R. Jenkins. Life Cycle Assessment of Corn Grain and Corn Stover. Unpublished manuscript.

Sheehan, J., A. Aden, K. Paustian, K. Killian, J. Brenner, M. Walsh, and R. Nelson. 2004. The energy and environmental aspects of using corn stover for fuel ethanol. Journal of Industrial Ecology 7(3-4):117-146.

Worldwatch Institute. 2006. Biofuels for transportation: Global potential and implications for sustainable agriculture and energy in the 21st century. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.


Argonne National Laboratory: Transportation Technology R&D Center. 2007. GREET is “gold standard” for well-to-wheel analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2007. Ethanol. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007. Note: Contains many further links on biofuels.

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). 2007. Roundtable on sustainable biofuels announces first draft principles for stakeholder discussion. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007. Note: Global stakeholder discussion, access via website; website also contains further links on emerging biofuels policy standards worldwide.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2007. Life-cycle assessment (LCA). Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007. Note: Contains useful background information and many further links on LCA, including “LCA 101.”

Farrell, A. E., R. J. Plevin, B. T. Turner, A. D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D. M. Kammen. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 27(311):506-508. Note: Contains a meta-study of recent ethanol LCAs.

National Resources Defense Council. 2004. Growing energy: How biofuels can help end America’s oil dependence. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.

National Resources Defense Council. 2007. Getting biofuels right: Eight steps for reaping real environmental benefits from biofuels. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007.

Shapouri, H. 2004. The 2001 net energy balance of corn ethanol. Paper presented at the Corn Utilization and Technology Conference, Indianapolis, IN, June. Online. Available at <>. Accessed July 2007. Note: This USDA website also contains reports on the economics of bioethanol.

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