Force Scientific Advisory Board from 1994 to 2000. Prior to joining GE in 1988, he spent 13 years at Carnegie Mellon University as professor, president of the Mellon Institute, and dean of engineering. Before joining Carnegie Mellon he held research and engineering positions with Rockwell and Boeing. He has consulted extensively for government and industry. He has published more than 200 papers based on his research. His professional interests include structure-property relations of high-strength materials, the performance of materials in extreme environments (temperature, stress and strain rate), materials processing, and technology policy, particularly as it pertains to materials and the management of high technology organizations. In much of his work he specialized in titanium alloys. In 2003 he and G. Lütjering wrote the book Titanium, published by Springer-Verlag, which released a second edition in the spring of 2007. Dr. Williams received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in metallurgical engineering from the University of Washington.