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Details on Demographics



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B Details on Demographics 143

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144 MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL NEEDS FOR A TRANSFORMED NAVAL FORCE DEMOgRAPHIC CHANgES BOX B.1 Complete Definitions of Population Groups The following definitions are reproduced from the U.S. Census web- site: • White refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indi- cated their race or races as “White” or nationalities such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish. • Black or African American refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Black, African-American, or Negro,” or nationalities such as Nigerian, or Haitian. • American Indian and Alaska Native refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attach- ment. It includes people who indicated their race or races by marking this category or writing in their principal or enrolled tribe, such as Rosebud Sioux, Chippewa, or Navajo. • Asian refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, or other Asian,” or wrote in na- tionalities such as Burmese, Hmong, Pakistani, or Thai. • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicated their race or races as “Na- tive Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, or other Pacific Islander,” or nationalities such as Tahitian, Mariana Islander, or Chuukese. • Some other race was included in Census 2000 for respondents who were unable to identify with the five Office of Management and Budget race categories. Respondents who provided write-in entries such as Moroccan, South African, Belizean, or a Hispanic origin (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) are included in the “Some other race” category. • The term Hispanic is an ethnic category not a racial category for persons who identify themselves as being of Spanish origin. Unlike other Census Bureau designations, Hispanic denotes neither race nor color, and a Hispanic may be White, Black, or American Indian, as well as (1) Mexican Americans/Chicanos, (2) Puerto Ricans/Boricuas, (3) Hispanos (U.S. Hispanics who identify themselves as Spanish), (4) Cuban Americans, and (5) Latinos (Hispanics from countries other than those already mentioned). Terms other than Hispanic may be preferred. For example, many Mexican Americans prefer Chicano, Puerto Ricans may prefer Boricuas, while others may prefer the more general term, Latino.

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145 APPENDIX B NEW WORkFORCE ENTRANTS TABLE B.1 Breakdown of New Workforce Entrants Percentage of Percentage Increase, Workforce, 1985 1985 to 2000 White male 47 15 White female 36 42 Nonwhite male 5 7 Nonwhite female 5 13 Immigrant males 4 13 Immigrant females 3 9 SOURCE: 2000 U.S. Census (www.census.gov). TABLE B.2 High School Graduation Rates by Group Asian, Pacific All Races White Black Islander Hispanic Male/Female Male/Female Male/Female Male/Female Male/Female 2000 84.2/84.0 84.8/85.0 78.7/78.3 88.2/83.4 56.6/57.5 2001 84.1/84.2 84.4/85.1 79.2/78.5 90.3/85.1 55.5/58.0 2002 83.8/84.4 84.3/85.2 78.5/78.9 89.5/85.5 56.1/57.9 2003 84.1/85.0 84.5/85.7 79.6/80.3 89.5/86.0 56.3/57.8 2004 84.8/85.4 85.3/86.3 80.4/80.8 88.7/85.0 57.3/59.5 2005 84.9/85.4 85.2/86.2 81.1/81.2 90.4/85.1 58.0/58.9 SOURCE: U.S. Census website (www.census.gov).

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146 MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL NEEDS FOR A TRANSFORMED NAVAL FORCE ROLE OF THE RESERVE COMPONENT TABLE B.3 Change in Reserve Component Manning Between 1990 and 2005 Reserve Status and Branch of Service 1990 1995 2000 2005 Reservesa Total 1,688,674 1,674,164 1,276,843 1,136,200 Ready Reserve 1,658,707 1,648,388 1,251,452 1,113,427 Armyb 1,049,579 999,462 725,771 636,355 Navy 240,228 267,356 184,080 140,821 Marine Corps 81,355 103,668 99,855 99,820 Air Forcec 270,313 263,011 229,009 223,551 Coast Guard 17,232 14,891 12,737 12,880 Standby Reserve 29,967 25,776 25,391 22,773 Army 788 1,128 701 1,668 Navy 11,791 12,707 7,213 4,038 Marine Corps 1,424 216 895 1,129 Air Force 15,369 11,453 16,429 15,897 Coast Guard 595 272 153 41 Retired Reserve 462,371 505,725 573,305 627,424 Army 223,919 259,553 296,004 321,312 Navy 111,961 97,352 109,531 117,093 Marine Corps 9,101 11,319 12,937 14,693 Air Force 117,390 137,501 154,833 174,326 aLess Retired Reserve. bIncludes Army National Guard. cIncludes Air National Guard. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Defense, DOD Personnel and Procurement Statistics, Personnel, Pub- lications, Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States and Selected Areas, annual; available at . Last accessed January 7, 2008.

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147 APPENDIX B BOX B.2 Breakdown of the Three Reserve Components All members of a reserve component are assigned to one of three reserve component categories: 1. The Ready Reserve comprises military members of the Reserve and National Guard, organized in units or as individuals, liable for recall to active duty to augment the active components in time of war or national emergency. The Ready Reserve consists of the following reserve com- ponent subcategories: — The Selected Reserve consists of those units and individuals within the Ready Reserve designated by their respective Services and approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as so essential to initial wartime missions that they have priority over all other Reserves. The Selected Reserve consists of additional sub-subcategories: • Drilling Reservists in Units are trained unit members who participate in unit training activities on a part-time basis. • Training Pipeline (nondeployable account) personnel are en- listed members of the Selected Reserve who have not yet completed initial active duty for training (IADT) and officers who are in training for professional categories or in undergraduate flying training. • Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMAs) are trained in- dividuals assigned to an active component, Selective Service System, or Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) organization’s billet that must be filled on or shortly after mo- bilization. IMAs participate in training activities on a part-time basis with an active component unit in preparation for recall in a mobilization. • Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) are National Guard or Reserve members of the Selected Reserve who are ordered to active duty or full-time National Guard duty for the purpose of or- ganizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the reserve component units. — Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) personnel provide a manpower pool composed principally of individuals having had training, hav- ing previously served in an active duty component or in the Se- lected Reserve, and having some period of their military service obligation (MSO) remaining. continued

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14 MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL NEEDS FOR A TRANSFORMED NAVAL FORCE BOX B.2 Continued — Inactive National Guard (ING) are National Guard personnel in an inactive status in the Ready Reserve, not in the Selected Reserve, attached to a specific National Guard unit, who are re- quired to muster once a year with their assigned unit but do not participate in training activities. On mobilization, ING members mobilize with their units. 2. The Standby Reserve consists of personnel who maintain their af- filiation without being in the Ready Reserve, who have been designated key civilian employees, or who have a temporary hardship or disability. They are not required to perform training and are not part of units but create a pool of trained individuals who could be mobilized if necessary to fill manpower needs in specific skills. — Active Status List are those Standby Reservists temporarily assigned for hardship or other cogent reason; those not having fulfilled their military service obligation or those retained in active status when provided for by law; or those members of Congress and others identified by their employers as “key personnel” and who have been removed from the Ready Reserve because they are critical to the national security in their civilian employment. — Inactive Status List are those Standby Reservists who are not required by law or regulation to remain in an active program and who retain their Reserve affiliation in a nonparticipating status, and those who have skills that may be of possible future use to the Armed Force concerned. 3. The Retired Reserve consists of all Reserve officers and enlisted personnel who receive retired pay on the basis of active duty and/or reserve service; all Reserve officers and enlisted personnel who are otherwise eligible for retired pay but have not reached age 60, who have not elected discharge, and are not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve; and other retired reservists under certain conditions. SOURCE: Available at . Accessed on October 5, 2007.

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149 APPENDIX B BOX B.3 Mobilization Categories • Full Mobilization requires a declaration of war or national emer- gency by the Congress, affects all reservists (including those on inactive status and retired members), and may last until six months after the war or emergency for which it was declared. • Partial Mobilization requires a declaration of national emer- gency, affects only the Ready Reserve, and is limited to a maximum of one million personnel activated for no more than two years. • Presidential Reserve Call-Ups do not require a declaration of national emergency but require the President to notify Congress, and each is limited to 200,000 Selected Reservists and 30,000 Individual Ready Reservists for up to 270 days. • The 15-Day Statute allows individual service secretaries to call up the Ready Reserves for up to 15 days per year for annual training or operational missions. • RC Volunteers may request to go on active duty regardless of their reserve component category, but the state governors must approve activating National Guard personnel. SOURCE: Available at . Accessed on October 5, 2007.