Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

VOLUME 2

Committee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract W81K04-06-D-0023 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommenda- tions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11273-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11273-7 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the Na- tional Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of further- ing knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general poli- cies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is admin- istered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON EMERGENCY AND CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR SELECTED SUBMARINE CONTAMINANTS Members ERNEST MCCONNELL (Chair), ToxPath, Inc., Raleigh, NC RAKESH DIXIT, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD DAVID DORMAN, College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University, Raleigh MAUREEN FEUSTON, Sanofi-Aventis, Inc., Malvern, PA JACK HARKEMA, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI HOWARD KIPEN, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ LOREN KOLLER, Environmental Health & Toxicology, Corvallis, OR JOHN O’DONOGHUE, University of Rochester, Honeoye Falls, NY JOYCE TSUJI, Exponent, Inc., Bellevue, WA ANNETTA WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Staff ELLEN K. MANTUS, Project Director JEAN HAMPTON, Senior Fellow NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Associate Program Officer MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center JOHN H. BROWN, Program Associate Sponsor U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE v

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COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Members WILLIAM E. HALPERIN (Chair), UMDNJ–New Jersey Medical School, Newark LAWRENCE S. BETTS, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk EDWARD C. BISHOP, HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE JAMES V. BRUCKNER, University of Georgia, Athens GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN MARION F. EHRICH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg SIDNEY GREEN, Howard University, Washington, DC MERYL H. KAROL, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA JAMES N. MCDOUGAL, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH ROGER G. MCINTOSH, Science Applications International Corporation, Abingdon, MD GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Associate Program Officer MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center TAMARA DAWSON, Senior Program Assistant RADIAH A. ROSE, Senior Editorial Assistant vi

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BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMON ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense, Washington, DC DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI RUTH DEFRIES, University of Maryland, College Park COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville J. PAUL GILMAN, Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Oak Ridge, TN SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA WILLIAM P. HORN, Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, (Retired) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT F. SAWYER, University of California, Berkeley KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MONICA G. TURNER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor 1 This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. vii

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Respiratory Disease Research at NIOSH (2008) Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008) Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007) Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007) Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007) Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007) Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (five volumes, 2000-2007) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) viii

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Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu ix

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Review of Toxicologic and Radiologic Risks to Military Personnel from Exposures to Depleted Uranium (2008) Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contami- nants, Volume 1 (2007) Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure: A Literature Review (2007) Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants, Volume 1 (2007) Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005) Review of the Army’s Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel (2004) Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004), Volume 2 (2007) Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003) Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002) Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001) Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002), Volume 3 (2003), Volume 4 (2004), Volume 5 (2007) Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000) Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000) Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000) Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000) Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical- Warfare Agents (1999) Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1(1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999) Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998) Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996) Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000) x

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Preface A submarine, of course, is an enclosed and isolated environment when submerged. Its crew works, eats, and sleeps in this environment and is exposed to air contaminants 24 h/day, unlike workers in a typical occupational environment, who have a respite from workplace exposures at the end of the workday or workweek. To protect the health of submariners, the U.S. Navy has developed 1-h and 24-h emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) and 90-day continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs) for a number of chemical contaminants. In 1995, the Navy began reviewing and updating submarine exposure guidance levels and asked the Committee on Toxicology (COT) of the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct an independent review of several chemicals. As a result of the Navy’s request, the NRC formed the Committee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guid- ance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants. This report, the second of two, pro- vides the committee’s rationale and recommendations regarding ammonia, benzene, 2,6- di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol, Freon 12, Freon 114, hydrogen, 2190 oil mist, ozone, surface lead, toluene, and xylene. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objec- tivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the in- tegrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Darol Dodd, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences; Terry Gordon, New York Uni- versity; Rogene Henderson, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute; Gary Krieger, NewFields, LLC; John Morris, University of Connecticut; Nathaniel Rothman, National Cancer Institute; George Rusch, Honeywell, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard Schlesinger, Pace University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution. xi

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xii Preface We would like to acknowledge the assistance of Sylvia Talmage and Kowetha Davidson, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who provided information and input that aided in the development of the toluene and ammonia profiles, respectively. The committee is grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing this re- port: Ellen Mantus, project director; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environ- mental Studies and Toxicology; Kulbir Bakshi, senior program officer for toxicology; Jean Hampton, senior fellow; Jennifer Saunders, associate program officer; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, manager, Technical Information Center; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; and John H. Brown, program associate. Finally, I thank the members of the committee for their dedicated efforts through- out the development of this report. Ernest McConnell, Chair Committee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

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Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................8 The Committee’s Charge, 8 Population Characteristics, 9 The Submarine Environment, 10 The Committee’s Approach to Its Charge, 13 Organization of the Report, 17 References, 17 2 AMMONIA .....................................................................................................20 Physical and Chemical Properties, 20 Occurrence and Use, 20 Summary of Toxicity, 21 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 47 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 50 Committee Recommendations, 50 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 57 References, 58 3 BENZENE.......................................................................................................64 Physical and Chemical Properties, 64 Occurrence and Use, 64 Summary of Toxicity, 66 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 74 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 75 Committee Recommendations, 76 Carcinogenicity Assessment, 79 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 80 References, 80 4 2,6-DI-TERT-BUTYL-4-NITROPHENOL..................................................88 Physical and Chemical Properties, 88 Occurrence and Use, 88 xiii

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xiv Contents Summary of Toxicity, 89 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 96 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 98 Committee Recommendations, 98 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 101 References, 101 5 FREON 12.....................................................................................................103 Physical and Chemical Properties, 103 Occurrence and Use, 103 Summary of Toxicity, 104 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 118 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 120 Committee Recommendations, 121 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 124 References, 124 6 FREON 114...................................................................................................129 Physical and Chemical Properties, 129 Occurrence and Use, 129 Summary of Toxicity, 130 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 141 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 143 Committee Recommendations, 143 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 147 References, 147 7 HYDROGEN ................................................................................................151 Physical and Chemical Properties, 151 Occurrence, Uses, and Sources of Exposure, 151 Summary of Toxicity, 152 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 154 Committee Recommendations, 154 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 155 References, 155 8 2190 OIL MIST ............................................................................................157 Physical and Chemical Properties, 158 Occurrence and Use, 158 Summary of Toxicity, 159 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 177 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 178 Committee Recommendations, 178 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 181 References, 181

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xv Contents 9 OZONE ........................................................................................................184 Physical and Chemical Properties, 184 Occurrence and Use, 184 Summary of Toxicity, 186 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 200 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 201 Committee Recommendations, 201 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 204 References, 205 10 SURFACE LEAD .........................................................................................214 Physical and Chemical Properties, 214 Occurrence and Use, 214 Summary of Toxicity, 215 Toxicokinetic Considerations, 220 Maximal Inorganic Surface Lead Concentrations from Other Organizations, 222 Committee Recommendations, 222 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 223 References, 224 11 TOLUENE ....................................................................................................230 Physical and Chemical Properties, 230 Occurrence and Use, 230 Summary of Toxicity, 232 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 256 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 259 Committee Recommendations, 259 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 264 References, 265 12 XYLENE .......................................................................................................276 Physical and Chemical Properties, 276 Occurrence and Use, 276 Summary of Toxicity, 278 Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations, 288 Inhalation Exposure Levels from the National Research Council and Other Organizations, 288 Committee Recommendations, 290 Data Adequacy and Research Needs, 292 References, 292 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................298 GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................302

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xvi Contents FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES 1-1 Generalized Schematic of a Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine, 13 TABLES S-1 Comparison of U.S. Navy’s Current and Proposed Exposure Guidance Levels with Those Recommended by the Committee, 5 1-1 Characteristics of Crew and Patrols for U.S. Navy Nuclear-Powered Submarines, 11 2-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Ammonia, 21 2-2 Subjective-Response Scores on Informed and Naïve Human Subjects Exposed to Ammonia Vapor at Various Concentrations, 25 2-3 Summary of Experimentally Determined Human Nondisabling and Reversible Effects of Inhaled Ammonia, 26 2-4 Summary of Acute-Lethality Inhalation Data on Ammonia Exposure of Laboratory Animals, 39 2-5 Summary of Repeated and Subchronic Ammonia Exposure Studies in Laboratory Animals, 42 2-6 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Ammonia from the NRC and Other Agencies, 51 2-7 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Ammonia, 52 3-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Benzene, 65 3-2 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Benzene from the NRC and Other Agencies, 76 3-3 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Benzene, 77 4-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-nitrophenol, 89 5-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Freon 12, 104 5-2 Summary of Human Toxicity of Freon 12, 107 5-3 Summary of Animal Toxicity of Freon 12, 110 5-4 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Freon 12 from the NRC and Other Agencies, 121 5-5 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Freon 12, 121 6-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Freon 114, 130 6-2 Summary of Toxicity of Freon 114 in Animals, 133 6-3 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Freon 114 from the NRC and Other Agencies, 144 6-4 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Freon 114, 144 7-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Gas, 152 7-2 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Hydrogen, 154 7-3 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Hydrogen, 155 8-1 Physical and Chemical Data on Turbine Oil (Symbol 2190 TEP), 158 8-2 Effects of Inhalation of Mist Oil on Humans, 160 8-3 Effects in Animals: Inhalation of Mist Oil, 167 8-4 Inhalation Exposure Levels for Mineral Oil Mist, 178 8-5 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Oil Mist, 179 9-1 Physical and Chemical Data on Ozone, 185 9-2 Controlled Exposure of Healthy Human Subjects to Ozone and Observed Effects on Pulmonary Function, 188

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xvii Contents 9-3 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Agencies, 202 9-4 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Ozone, 202 10-1 Selected Physical and Chemical Data on Elemental Lead, 215 10-2 Blood Lead Concentrations and Associated Observed Effects in Exposed Men, 217 10-3 Selected Maximal Surface Lead Concentrations, 222 11-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Toluene, 231 11-2 Sensory and Neurobehavioral Effects of Toluene in Short-Term, Controlled Human Studies, 235 11-3 Effects of Toluene in Occupational Settings, 241 11-4 Neurobehavioral Effects of Acute Toluene Inhalation Exposure in Rats, 249 11-5 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Toluene from the NRC and Other Agencies, 260 11-6 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Toluene, 261 12-1 Physical and Chemical Data on Xylene, 277 12-2 Effect of Xylene in Controlled Human Studies, 283 12-3 Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Xylene from the NRC and Other Agencies, 289 12-4 Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Xylene, 290

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