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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants: Volume 2
TABLE 5-1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Freon 12
Synonyms and trade names
FC 12, CFC-12, difluorodichloromethane, fluorocarbon-12, R 12
CAS registry number
−29.8°C at 760 mm Hg
1.1834 g/mL (57°C)
5.7 atm (20°C)
Insoluble in water (0.028 g/100 g at 25°C); soluble in alcohol, ether
1 ppm = 4.95 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.202 ppm
Abbreviations: NA, not available or not applicable.
Sources: Flash point and explosive limits from HSDB 2005; all other data from ACGIH 2001.
pling at three locations conducted over 6 h during the missions of two submarines. Sampling indicated concentrations of 2.072-5.476 ppm and of 2.740-3.035 ppm, depending on the collection method, on one submarine, and concentrations of 0.452-3.015 ppm and of 2.092-2.938 ppm, depending on the collection method, on the other submarine. Raymer et al. (1994) reported the results of a similar sampling exercise (two submarines, three locations, and sampling duration of 6 h). Freon 12 concentrations were reported at 4.0 and 1.4 ppm in the fan rooms, 2.0 ppm in the galleys, and 1.8 and 4.0 ppm in the engine rooms.
SUMMARY OF TOXICITY
The toxicity of Freon 12 has been studied in a number of species exposed acutely and repeatedly. Most of those studies, however, were conducted in the 1970s and earlier and lack complete documentation. Some studies, although frequently cited in review articles, are unpublished or were published in foreign journals and were available only in published reviews. The information evaluated indicates that Freon 12 has relatively low acute toxicity by inhalation (for example, LC50s over 500,000 ppm in animals) with weak narcotic and moderate cardiac-sensitizing effects. The EC50s (the concentrations at which a specified effect is observed in 50% of a test population) for cardiac sensitization, the most serious toxic effect, have been reported to be at least 50,000 ppm in dogs and other animals given intravenous epinephrine and over 100,000 ppm in animals