• Are there any biological effects that are not caused by an increase in tissue temperature (nonthermal effects)?

  • Does RF exposure alter (synergize, antagonize, or potentiate)1 the biological effects of other chemical or physical agents?

  • Are there differences in risk to children?

  • Are there differences in risk to other subpopulations such as the elderly and individuals with underlying disease states?

These overarching issues and the general discussions that followed were factored into the committee’s deliberations in developing the report. From the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop sessions, the committee identified research needs and gaps; the selection of these research needs and gaps are committee judgments.

For the purposes of this report, the committee defines research needs as research that will increase our understanding of the potential adverse effects of RF energy on humans. Research gaps are defined as areas of research where the committee judges that scientific data that have potential value are presently lacking, but that closing of these gaps is ongoing, and results should be awaited before judgments are made on further research needs, or the gaps are not judged by the committee to be of as high a priority at this time.

To the extent possible, near-, mid-, and long-term research opportunities have been characterized as follows: the committee judged that research needs are near-term research opportunities. Gaps that are currently being filled may result in mid-term research opportunities, depending on the outcome of the current research. Gaps defined as being of lower priority with respect to directly addressing health concerns comprise possible long-term research opportunities.


Synergize: two or more agents or forces interacting so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Antagonize: two or more agents or forces interacting so that one agent counteracts the effect of another agent. Potentiate: one agent promotes or strengthens a biochemical or physiological action or effect of another agent.

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