geographic location and whether a phone is primarily used indoors or outdoors). Towards this end, we need tissue-characterized models of children of different ages and of pregnant women for dosimetric calculations. Specific Absorbtion Rates (SARs)4 for children are likely to be higher than for adults, both for cell phones and for base station exposures, due to the fact that the exposure frequency is closer to the whole-body resonance frequency for shorter individuals such as children (ANSI 1982; Gandhi 1979; Wang et al. 2006; Hirata et al. 2007). Better characterization of SARs for children of various age groups is, therefore, needed. Furthermore, models are not presently adequate for men and women of various heights and for children of various ages.


Wireless networks are being built very rapidly, and many more base station antennas are being installed. Maintenance personnel may be exposed to fairly high electromagnetic fields emanating from base station antennas5 unless all of the typically four to six antennas mounted on the base station are turned off. For all of the base station antennas, the radiated power is on the order of several tens of watts, with higher powers being radiated at peak hours of the day. Though not as well characterized, particularly for multiple co-located base station antennas, the radiated RF fields for rooftops near base stations may also be fairly high. The quantification of SAR distributions from base stations is fairly minimal and those distributions are of concern for professionals involved in maintenance of base stations, building/roof maintenance personnel, and members of the public that live in close proximity to the antennas. There are also subpopulations among the employees, which might be exposed to greater amounts of RF energy than the average population. The characterization of these subpopulations is important.

Thus, the interest in base station exposures close to the antennas is driven by the potential health effects on antenna repair professionals and building/roof maintenance workers from relatively high, acute exposures, but the interest in exposures for members of the public that live in close proximity to the antennas or for the public at the ground level at larger distances is motivated by the need to address public concern about very low


Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which radiofrequency (RF) energy is absorbed by the body when exposed to an RF electromagnetic field. The most common use is in relation to cellular telephones.


Base station antennas mounted on rooftops, on poles, or other elevated positions are the important intermediaries for cell phone communications.

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