level, chronic exposures that are in fact similar to those from existing TV and radio antennas albeit at different frequencies.

Most of the reported studies to date have involved one base station antenna and have used mostly homogeneous models, often of simplified circular or rectangular cross sections of the exposed human. One study involving a heterogeneous, anatomically based model consisting of diverse constituents, but still assuming a single antenna rather than typical arrangements of four to six antennas, is given in Gandhi and Lam (2003). In other words, the studies to date do not pertain to the commonly used multiple-element base station radiators. Also, unlike highly localized cell phone RF energy deposition, the base station exposures involve much, if not all, of the body and would have slightly different radiator origins (for multi-element base stations) and may be multi-frequency as well, particularly if several different-frequency base station antennas are co-located. Furthermore, because of the whole-body resonance6 phenomenon, the SAR is likely to be higher for shorter individuals due to the closeness of the frequency/frequencies of exposure to the whole-body resonance frequency. In addition to the rapid growth in the number of base stations since 1990, there has also been growth in other sources of RF radiation from cordless phones, wireless computer communications, and other communications systems. The last general survey of RF levels in U.S. cities was during the 1970s, and an updated survey of RF intensities would be useful background for future epidemiologic studies. There are many indoor wireless systems as well as cell phones, which are used both indoors and outdoors. Measurements of the differences in the exposures generated by the use of these devices in these environments will be of value in determining if there are any health effects resulting from exposures to low levels and intermittent sources of RF radiation.


The use of evolving types of antennas for cell phones and text messaging devices needs to be characterized for the SARs that they deliver to different parts of the body so that this data is available for use in future epidemiologic studies. A great deal of research has been done by many laboratories worldwide to understand coupling of RF energy irradiation from cell phone antennas to the human head. For most of these studies, the


Whole-body resonance: It has been shown that each individual absorbs maximum energy from incident RF fields at frequencies that are higher for shorter individuals. Furthermore the SAR at this resonance frequency is increasingly higher for shorter individuals (Gandhi 1979). As the absorbed energy diminishes inversely with frequency in the post-resonance region, it is still quite high for the shorter individuals at base station frequencies because of the relative proximity of these frequencies to the resonance frequencies.

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