less RF fields in a properly selected sample of the population is needed to characterize and document rapidly changing exposures.

  1. The use of evolving types of antennas for hand-held cell phones and text messaging devices need to be characterized for the SARs that they deliver to different parts of the body so that this data is available for use in future epidemiologic studies.

  2. RF exposure of the operational personnel close to newer multi-element base station antennas is unknown and could be high. These exposures need to be characterized. Also needed are dosimetric absorbed power calculations using realistic anatomic models for individuals, including both men and women of different heights.

Research Gaps

Research Ongoing

  1. Although several models are available for children and individuals of reduced stature, a research gap remains in the further development of models of several heights for men, women, and children of various ages for use in the characterization of SAR distributions for exposures characteristic of cell phones, wireless PCs, and base stations.

Judged to Be of Lower Priority

  1. Presently, there is negligible or relatively little knowledge of local SAR concentration (and likely heating) in close proximity to metallic adornments and implanted medical devices for the human body.

  2. There is a need for improved exposure systems for human laboratory studies including reliable and accurate exposure assessment for designs of next generation exposure systems for human laboratory studies. Furthermore, location-dependent field strength needs to be accounted for in the characterization of exposures. A very important consideration is the validation of results by several independent investigators so that reliable and accurate exposure assessments are available for both comparisons between systems and between laboratories.

  3. An updated survey of the electromagnetic field strengths in the U.S. would improve our knowledge of the exposure levels for the population at large. This survey should take into account the large number of new cell phone stations, radio stations, and TV stations and a wide array of other communications devices. It would include a survey of the difference between indoor and outdoor environments.

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