in humans for various public and personnel radio frequency EM exposure environments using anatomically based models of the human body and numerical electromagnetic techniques that are used to understand coupling of EM fields for far- and near-field exposures from power line to microwave frequencies. This expertise includes the use of numerical and experimental techniques for compliance testing of wireless communication devices and development of instrumentation for assessing personnel safety. From 1995 to 2003, Dr. Gandhi served as chairman of the National Council of Radiation Protection’s Scientific Committee 89-4 on “Biological Effects and Exposure Recommendations for Pulse-Modulated RF Fields.” Dr. Gandhi was elected a fellow of the IEEE in 1979 and received the distinguished research award from the University of Utah for 1979-1980. He received the Utah Governor’s Medal for Science and Technology in 2002 and the Microwave Pioneer Award of the IEEE-Microwave Theory and Techniques Society in 2001. He has been president of the Bioelectromagnetics Society (1992-1993), co-chairman of IEEE SCC 28.IV Subcommittee on the RF Safety Standards (1988-1997), and chairman of the IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (1980-1982). Dr. Gandhi is author or co-author of several book chapters and over 250 peer-reviewed journal articles on electromagnetic dosimetry, microwave tubes, and solid-state devices. When the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing of the cell phone industry was mandated by the FCC in 1993, his laboratory at the University of Utah provided a service to test cell phones during the years 1993-1999 from a number of manufacturers.


Maila Hietanen, Ph.D., is head of the Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Section at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) in Helsinki, Finland. She has a background in applied physics, and her research interests focus on assessment and prevention of health risks related to human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In recent years Dr. Hietanen with her research team has been doing research on the neurophysiological and cardiophysiological effects associated with the use of mobile phones. In addition, her research work includes a study on subjective symptoms of persons with perceived electrical hypersensitivity. Dr. Hietanen has been a board member (2001–2007) of the European Bioelectromagnetic Association (EBEA). She has also served on the board of the BEMS, and was an associate editor for the Bioelectromagnetics Journal during the years 2003-2005. She has been involved in research cooperation within the European Coordination Action (EMF-NET). She is also the vice-chair of the European COST 281 Action (“Potential Health Implications from Mobile Communication”), and a member of several European and international standards committees (CENELEC, IEC). She was also nominated as the Finnish representative at the International Advisory Committee of the WHO EMF Project.



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