IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH NEEDS RELATING TO POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL OR ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION DEVICES

Committee on Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communications Devices

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communications Devices Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Award No. HHSF223200710005C between the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organiza- tions or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11294-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11294-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH NEEDS RELATING TO POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL OR ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES FRANK S. BARNES (Chair), University of Colorado, Boulder OM P. GANDHI, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MAILA HIETANEN, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland LEEKA KHEIFETS, University of California, Los Angeles RüDIGER MATTHES, Federal Office of Radiation Protection, Oberschleißheim, Germany DAVID L. MCCORMICK, IIT Research Institute, Chicago BERNARD VEYRET, University of Bordeaux, France Nuclear And Radiation Studies Board Liaison DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Staff RICK JOSTES, Study Director NAOKO ISHIBE, Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Financial and Administrative Associate SHAUNTEé WHETSTONE, Program Assistant JAMES YATES, JR., Office Assistant iv

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NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD RICHARD A. MESERVE (Chair), Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. S. JAMES ADELSTEIN (Vice Chair), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts JOEL S. BEDFORD, Colorado State University, Fort Collins SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman ALLEN G. CROFF, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), St. Augustine, Florida DAVID E. DANIEL, University of Texas at Dallas SARAH C. DARBY, Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom JAY DAVIS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (retired), Livermore, California ROGER L. HAGENGRUBER, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KLAUS KüHN, Technische Universität Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany MILTON LEVENSON, Bechtel International (retired), Menlo Park, California C. CLIFTON LING, Memorial Hospital, New York City, New York PAUL A. LOCKE, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland WARREN F. MILLER, Texas A&M University, Albuquerque, New Mexico BORIS F. MYASOEDOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ANDREW M. SESSLER, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California JOHN C. VILLFORTH, Food and Drug Law Institute (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland PAUL L. ZIEMER, Purdue University (retired), West Lafayette, Indiana Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director EVAN B. DOUPLE, Scholar RICK JOSTES, Senior Program Officer MICAH D. LOWENTHAL, Senior Program Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Program Officer NAOKO ISHIBE, Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate COURTNEY GIBBS, Senior Program Assistant MANDI M. BOYKIN, Senior Program Assistant SHAUNTEé WHETSTONE, Senior Program Assistant JAMES YATES, JR., Office Assistant v

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Acknowledgements The report benefited from the contribution of the speakers and partici- pants in the workshop. The agenda, speakers, and participants are included as appendices to the report. The committee would like to thank Rick Jostes, Shaunteé Whetstone, Toni Greenleaf, and Naoko Ishibe for helping to make the workshop a success. A special thanks to the sponsor, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as well. vii

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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their par- ticipation in the review of this report: Joel S. Bedford, Colorado State University Maria Feychting, Karolinska Institutet Lennart Hardell, University Hospital Niels Kuster, Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS) Harri Lindholm, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Gabor Mezei, Electric Power Research Institute Frank S. Prato, University of Western Ontario Jerome S. Puskin, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency E. Van Rongen, Health Council of the Netherlands Teri L. Vierima, Resource Strategies Inc. Peter M. Wiedemann, Federal Research Center ix

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x REVIEWERS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by May R. Berenbaum, University of Illinois and Daniel E. Wartenberg, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was car- ried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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Contents Executive Summary 1 Summary 3 Introduction 10 Dosimetry and Exposure 13 Epidemiology 19 Human Laboratory Studies 27 Mechanisms 33 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies in Experimental Model Systems 37 References 45 Appendixes A Statement of Task 51 B Committee Biographical Sketches 52 C Workshop Agenda 57 D Workshop Participants 64 E List of Individuals Who Submitted Statements Identifying Needs and Gaps in Research Prior to Workshop 66 xi

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