1. Continue to use toxicogenomics to study differences in toxicant responses between animal models. These results will afford valuable opportunities to extend knowledge of how to effectively translate animal model observations into credible estimates of potential human risk. If toxicogenomics can illustrate how currently known interspecies differences in toxicity can be more rapidly and clearly explained, it will offer the potential to significantly enhance the confidence in animal-to-human toxicity extrapolations that constitute a foundational element of risk evaluations.

  2. Use toxicogenomics to investigate how exposure during early development conveys susceptibility to drug and chemical toxicities. Efforts to develop mode-of-action data to clarify the need to apply either specific or universal default uncertainty factors in addressing susceptibility concerns, and to supplant such defaults with data- and principle-driven alternatives, will be of great value.

  3. Use toxicogenomic approaches to test the validity of methods for estimating potential risks associated with mixtures of environmental chemicals. Investigations examining responses in the range of relevant exposures and low doses will be particularly valuable.

  4. Invest in research and expertise within the infrastructure of regulatory agencies, as well as active collaboration across agencies, to enable toxicogenomic approaches to be effectively and credibly integrated into risk assessment practice. Transparent and participatory mechanisms for educating and engaging the scientific, regulatory, and public communities will also be needed.

  5. Support education and training programs at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels to train a new generation of risk assessors fluent in the science of toxicogenomics.

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