1. Educational initiatives are needed for vulnerable subgroups and the general public to raise awareness about toxicogenomic findings that can affect their health.

  2. Educational initiatives need to be developed and implemented to prepare the medical and public health workforce to use toxicogenomic information.

Finally, several areas of future research would address some of the issues raised in this chapter. These include the following:

  1. Federal agencies should increase their support for research on the issues of ethical, legal, and social implications in applying toxicogenomic technologies, including public attitudes toward individualized risk, social effects of personalized information on increased risks, and regulatory criteria for toxicogenomics.

  2. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (or other federal agencies) should develop “points-to-consider” documents that identify and discuss the issues of ethical, legal, and social implications relevant to individual researchers, institutional review boards, research institutes, companies, and funding agencies participating in toxicogenomic research and applications.

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