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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology David C. Christiani (Chair) is professor of occupational medicine and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School. He is also a physician in the pulmonary critical care unit at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Christiani’s research interests focus on the molecular epidemiology of acute and chronic diseases, with an emphasis on the development and application of biologic markers for environmentally induced diseases, and gene-environment interactions for malignant and nonmalignant disorders, susceptibility to environmental cancer, and molecular markers of acute lung injury. He is a member of the editorial board of Environmental Health Perspectives-Toxicogenomics, Environmental Health, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, and International Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health. Dr. Christiani has served on the Benzene Study Scientific Advisory Committee for the National Cancer Institute. He is board certified in internal medicine, preventive medicine, and pulmonary diseases. Dr. Christiani earned his M.D. from Tufts University and M.P.H. and M.S. from Harvard University. Cynthia A. Afshari is an associate director in the toxicology department at Amgen, Inc. Her expertise is in the areas of molecular toxicology, functional genomics/toxicogenomics, in vitro models, and carcinogenesis. At Amgen, she leads the investigative and in vitro screening toxicology groups and conducts research in new predictive toxicity assays. She is also responsible for guiding preclinical safety assessment work for several therapeutic project teams. Previously, she was an adjunct professor of toxicology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and was the director of basic research applications at the
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Microarray Center for 4 years. At NIEHS, she headed an interdisciplinary group of biologists, engineers, and computer scientists investigating applications of new genomic technologies to mechanistic toxicology. Dr. Afshari currently serves as chair of the Steering Committee on Application of Genomics and Proteomics to Mechanism-based Risk Assessment organized by the Health and Environmental Science Institute (HESI) of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and was chair of the Nephrotoxicity and Database working groups of the same ILSI-HESI Subcommittee for 2 years. She is also a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Genomics Subcommittee and is an associate editor of Toxicologic Pathology and Toxicological Sciences and a reviewing editor for Environmental Health Perspectives. She earned her Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is a board-certified toxicologist. John M. Balbus is the director of the health program at Environmental Defense and is also an adjunct associate professor of environmental health at Johns Hopkins University and George Washington University. His expertise is in epidemiology, toxicology, and risk science. He spent 7 years at George Washington University, where he was the founding director of the Center for Risk Science and Public Health and served as acting chair of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health. He was also an associate professor of medicine. Dr. Balbus serves as a committee member on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Children’s Health Protection Advisory Committee and a peer review panel member on the EPA Voluntary Children’s Chemical Exposure Program; he was on EPA Science Advisory Board review subcommittees for the National Air Toxics Research Plan and Computational Toxicology. Dr. Balbus earned his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. James S. Bus is director of external technology, toxicology and environmental research and consulting at Dow Chemical Company. His research interests include the mechanism of superoxide radical-mediated paraquat toxicity, the relationship between benzene metabolism and toxicity, metabolic pathways as defense mechanisms to toxicant exposure, and mode of action considerations in the use of transgenic animals for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity evaluations. Dr. Bus is involved with the CIIT Centers for Health Research advisory board and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute; he also chairs a long-range research committee for the American Chemistry Council and serves on the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. He is a member of the National Research Council standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Dr. Bus is a member of several professional societies, including the Society of Toxicology (serving as president, 1996-1997), the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Conference of Governmental
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment and Industrial Hygienists, and the Teratology Society; he is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. He earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology from Michigan State University. Bruce F. Demple is professor of toxicology in the Department of Genetics and Complex Disease at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research focuses on the impact of environmental exposures, including oxidants, ionizing radiation, and arsenic on in vitro and in vivo systems. Dr. Demple’s research interests include occurrence and repair of oxidative, radiation, and alkylation damage to DNA; cellular responses to free radicals; redox-regulated and nitric-oxide-regulated gene expression; and mutagenesis mechanisms and genetic stability. Dr. Demple is a member of the Harvard National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center for Environmental Health and serves on the editorial boards of DNA Repair and BMC Cell Biology. He earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Linda E. Greer is the director of the health program for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). Dr. Greer’s expertise is in environmental toxicology and risk assessment and her focus at NRDC is on toxic chemical pollution policy and analysis. Dr. Greer’s largest current project is on global sources of mercury pollution. She has served on numerous National Research Council (NRC) committees including the Committee on Industrial Competitiveness and Environmental Protection, the Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Alternatives, and the Committee on Hazardous Wastes in Highway Rights-of-Way. Dr. Greer also served on the NRC’s Board on Life Sciences from 2001 to 2004. She is a member of the NRC standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants and is a member of the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. Dr. Greer earned a M.S.P.H. in environmental science and engineering from the University of North Carolina School of Public Health in Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. in environmental toxicology from the University of Maryland. Sharon L. R. Kardia is director of the Public Health Genetic Program and associate professor of Epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan. She is also the co-director for the Life Sciences Values and Society Program and the Michigan Center for Genomics and Public Health at the University of Michigan. She has served as a research scientist and professor at the University of Michigan since 1991, where her work in genetic epidemiology focuses on genetics of common chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and hypertension. She has served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Genomics and the Public’s Health in the 21st Century and the State of Michigan’s Cancer Genetics Network Advisory Committee. Dr. Kardia earned her M.A. in statistics and Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Michigan.
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment George D. Leikauf is a professor at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. Previously he served as the director of the Molecular Toxicology Division in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Cincinnati. He was also an adjunct professor in the Pulmonary and Critical Care Division of the Department of Internal Medicine. Dr. Leikauf’s research interests include the role of gene-environment interactions in controlling pulmonary response to inhaled pollutants as well as genomic/proteomic techniques in diagnosis and treatment of environmental lung disease. He is associate director of the Center for Environmental Genetics at the University of Cincinnati and has served on numerous committees, including chairing National Institutes of Health Study Sections, and is on several editorial boards. He earned his Ph.D. in environmental health sciences from New York University Medical Center and completed his postdoctoral training at the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the University of California, San Francisco. Daniel C. Liebler is a professor of biochemistry and pharmacology at Vanderbilt University’s School of Medicine and is director of the Proteomics Laboratory in the Mass Spectrometry Research Center. His research interests are in proteomic analysis of protein modifications and proteomic responses to cell injury. He was at the University of Arizona for 16 years, where he was a professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology. From 1999 to 2003, he served as director of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. He is the associate editor of Environmental Health Perspectives: Toxicogenomics and Molecular Carcinogenesis. He also serves on the editorial boards of Chemical Research in Toxicology, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Chemical and Biological Interactions, and the Journal of Proteome Research. Dr. Liebler earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology from Vanderbilt University. Gary E. Marchant is a professor at Arizona State University (ASU) College of Law and executive director of the ASU Center for the Study of Law, Science and Technology. He is also a professor in the School of Life Sciences and the Lincoln Professor of Emerging Technologies, Law and Ethics at ASU. Dr. Marchant teaches and conducts research in environmental law; risk assessment and risk management; genetics and the law; and law, science, and technology. Before joining the ASU faculty in 1999, he was a partner at the Washington, DC, office of the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis, where his practice focused on environmental and administrative law. He currently serves as a member on the National Research Council Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards. Dr. Marchant earned a Ph.D. in genetics from the University of British Columbia, a Master of Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Harvard Journal of Law & Technology and editor of the Harvard Environmental Law Review.
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment John Quackenbush is a professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Institute and Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University School of Public Health. His primary research areas are functional genomics and bioinformatics, and his work focuses on integrating diverse data types to provide insight into biological systems. He and his group have been investigating gene expression patterns in animal models with the goal of identifying mechanisms underlying a range of human diseases. They have also used microarrays to look for diagnostic and prognostic expression fingerprints in human breast and colon cancer, and he has been active in using plant models to develop methods for integrating functional genomic and metabolomic approaches. Dr. Quackenbush is currently a member of the National Research Council standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. He earned a Ph.D. in theoretical particle physics from the University of California, Los Angeles. Kenneth S. Ramos is a professor and chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Louisville Health Sciences Center. He also serves as director of the Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine. His research focuses on the study of molecular mechanisms of environmental pathogenesis, transcriptional control of retrotransposons, and inference of gene regulatory networks. He is editor of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences journal Environmental Health Perspectives: Toxicogenomics. Dr. Ramos has served on numerous National Research Council committees, including the Committee for a Review of Evidence Regarding the Link Between Exposure to Agent Orange and Diabetes, Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides: Second Biennial Update, HHMI Predoctoral Fellowships Panel on Neurosciences and Physiology, and Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides: First Biennial Update. He serves as chair of the Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Dr. Ramos received a Ph.D. in biochemical pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Texas at Austin. Mark A. Rothstein is the Herbert F. Boehl Chair of Law and Medicine and is director of the Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law at the University of Louisville. He has appointments in the Departments of Medicine and Family and Geriatric Medicine at the School of Medicine and at the Louis D. Brandeis School of Law. He earned a J.D. from Georgetown University. Mr. Rothstein’s interests include the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics, privacy, health policy, and employment law. He is chair of the Privacy and Confidentiality Subcommittee of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, the federal advisory committee that advises the Secretary of Health and Human Services on health information policy, including the privacy regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. He has served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks: Issues and Implica-
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment tions for Health and is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Raymond E. Stoll is president of Stoll and Associates, LLC, a toxicology consulting company specializing in toxicologic, pharmaceutical, and biological issues in compound development. His areas of interest are computers in toxicology, carcinogenesis, alternative models in carcinogenicity assessment, and toxicogenomics and proteomics. Dr. Stoll was director of toxicology and safety assessment at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals from 1992 to 2003 and was a member of their product development committee. Currently, he holds the title of Highly Distinguished Scientist in Toxicology at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. Before working at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, he served as senior director of toxicology at Cetus Corporation and as director of toxicology and pathology at the Sandoz Research Institute. He is a past chair of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America preclinical safety committee. He earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology and toxicology from Purdue University. Roger G. Ulrich is currently chief development officer at Calistoga Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Previously he was senior scientific director with Rosetta Inpharmatics, LLC, Merck & Company, Inc. located in Seattle, Washington. He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in biology, chemistry, and biomedical sciences from Western Michigan University and his Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology from West Virginia University. He joined the pathology and toxicology research department at The Upjohn Company in 1983 (currently part of Pfizer) as a research scientist in ultrastructural pathology and cell biology, and was a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology from 1993 to 2003. He worked for Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, Illinois) from 1997 to 2001 as director of toxicology and director of cellular and molecular toxicology and joined MerckRosetta in 2001 as senior director. In his 22-year industrial career, he has contributed to the discovery and development of new drugs in a variety of therapeutic areas, including diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases; he pioneered the application of gene expression profiling to toxicology. He currently serves on the editorial boards of Xenobiotica and Toxicology In Vitro with past service on other editorial boards. He is an active member of several scientific societies and associations, including the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, the Health and Environmental Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute, and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Genomics Division. He continues to hold academic appointments. He has authored more than 100 full-length publications in cell biology and toxicology and pursues a research focus on cellular and molecular pharmacology and toxicology.
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Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment Helmut Zarbl is a principal investigator in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Prior to this he was a full member in the Divisions of Human Biology and Public Health Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHRCR). He was the director and a principal investigator for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)-sponsored FHFRC/University of Washington Toxicogenomics Research Consortium. His areas of expertise are in DNA microarray technology development and functional genomics and toxicogenomics, in particular understanding tissue, strain, species, and intraindividual differences in response to environmental toxicants through gene expression analysis. He is currently an affiliate professor at the University of Washington (UW) in the School of Medicine (pathology) and the School of Public Health and Community Medicine (toxicology). He is also a member of the UW/NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, where he is the director of Functional Genomics Core. Previously, he was an associate professor at MIT He earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from McGill University.