Appendix A
Biographic Information on the Committee on Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology

David C. Christiani (Chair) is professor of occupational medicine and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School. He is also a physician in the pulmonary critical care unit at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Christiani’s research interests focus on the molecular epidemiology of acute and chronic diseases, with an emphasis on the development and application of biologic markers for environmentally induced diseases, and gene-environment interactions for malignant and nonmalignant disorders, susceptibility to environmental cancer, and molecular markers of acute lung injury. He is a member of the editorial board of Environmental Health Perspectives-Toxicogenomics, Environmental Health, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, and International Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health. Dr. Christiani has served on the Benzene Study Scientific Advisory Committee for the National Cancer Institute. He is board certified in internal medicine, preventive medicine, and pulmonary diseases. Dr. Christiani earned his M.D. from Tufts University and M.P.H. and M.S. from Harvard University.


Cynthia A. Afshari is an associate director in the toxicology department at Amgen, Inc. Her expertise is in the areas of molecular toxicology, functional genomics/toxicogenomics, in vitro models, and carcinogenesis. At Amgen, she leads the investigative and in vitro screening toxicology groups and conducts research in new predictive toxicity assays. She is also responsible for guiding preclinical safety assessment work for several therapeutic project teams. Previously, she was an adjunct professor of toxicology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and was the director of basic research applications at the



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Appendix A Biographic Information on the Committee on Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology David C. Christiani (Chair) is professor of occupational medicine and epide- miology at the Harvard School of Public Health and professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School. He is also a physician in the pulmonary critical care unit at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Christiani’s research interests focus on the molecular epidemiology of acute and chronic diseases, with an em- phasis on the development and application of biologic markers for environmen- tally induced diseases, and gene-environment interactions for malignant and nonmalignant disorders, susceptibility to environmental cancer, and molecular markers of acute lung injury. He is a member of the editorial board of Environ- mental Health Perspectives-Toxicogenomics, Environmental Health, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, and International Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health. Dr. Christiani has served on the Benzene Study Scientific Advisory Committee for the National Cancer Institute. He is board certified in internal medicine, preventive medicine, and pulmonary diseases. Dr. Christiani earned his M.D. from Tufts University and M.P.H. and M.S. from Harvard Uni- versity. Cynthia A. Afshari is an associate director in the toxicology department at Amgen, Inc. Her expertise is in the areas of molecular toxicology, functional genomics/toxicogenomics, in vitro models, and carcinogenesis. At Amgen, she leads the investigative and in vitro screening toxicology groups and conducts research in new predictive toxicity assays. She is also responsible for guiding preclinical safety assessment work for several therapeutic project teams. Previ- ously, she was an adjunct professor of toxicology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and was the director of basic research applications at the 255

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256 Appendix A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Microarray Cen- ter for 4 years. At NIEHS, she headed an interdisciplinary group of biologists, engineers, and computer scientists investigating applications of new genomic technologies to mechanistic toxicology. Dr. Afshari currently serves as chair of the Steering Committee on Application of Genomics and Proteomics to Mecha- nism-based Risk Assessment organized by the Health and Environmental Sci- ence Institute (HESI) of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and was chair of the Nephrotoxicity and Database working groups of the same ILSI- HESI Subcommittee for 2 years. She is also a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Genomics Subcommittee and is an associate editor of Toxicologic Pathology and Toxicological Sciences and a re- viewing editor for Environmental Health Perspectives. She earned her Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is a board- certified toxicologist. John M. Balbus is the director of the health program at Environmental Defense and is also an adjunct associate professor of environmental health at Johns Hop- kins University and George Washington University. His expertise is in epidemi- ology, toxicology, and risk science. He spent 7 years at George Washington University, where he was the founding director of the Center for Risk Science and Public Health and served as acting chair of the Department of Environ- mental and Occupational Health. He was also an associate professor of medi- cine. Dr. Balbus serves as a committee member on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Children’s Health Protection Advisory Committee and a peer review panel member on the EPA Voluntary Children’s Chemical Exposure Program; he was on EPA Science Advisory Board review subcommittees for the National Air Toxics Research Plan and Computational Toxicology. Dr. Balbus earned his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. James S. Bus is director of external technology, toxicology and environmental research and consulting at Dow Chemical Company. His research interests in- clude the mechanism of superoxide radical-mediated paraquat toxicity, the rela- tionship between benzene metabolism and toxicity, metabolic pathways as de- fense mechanisms to toxicant exposure, and mode of action considerations in the use of transgenic animals for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity evaluations. Dr. Bus is involved with the CIIT Centers for Health Research advisory board and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute of the International Life Sci- ences Institute; he also chairs a long-range research committee for the American Chemistry Council and serves on the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. He is a member of the National Research Council standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Dr. Bus is a member of several professional societies, including the Society of Toxi- cology (serving as president, 1996-1997), the American Society for Pharmacol- ogy and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Conference of Governmental

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257 Appendix A and Industrial Hygienists, and the Teratology Society; he is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. He earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology from Michigan State University. Bruce F. Demple is professor of toxicology in the Department of Genetics and Complex Disease at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research focuses on the impact of environmental exposures, including oxidants, ionizing radia- tion, and arsenic on in vitro and in vivo systems. Dr. Demple’s research interests include occurrence and repair of oxidative, radiation, and alkylation damage to DNA; cellular responses to free radicals; redox-regulated and nitric-oxide- regulated gene expression; and mutagenesis mechanisms and genetic stability. Dr. Demple is a member of the Harvard National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center for Environmental Health and serves on the editorial boards of DNA Repair and BMC Cell Biology. He earned his Ph.D. in biochem- istry from the University of California, Berkeley. Linda E. Greer is the director of the health program for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). Dr. Greer’s expertise is in environmental toxicology and risk assessment and her focus at NRDC is on toxic chemical pollution pol- icy and analysis. Dr. Greer’s largest current project is on global sources of mer- cury pollution. She has served on numerous National Research Council (NRC) committees including the Committee on Industrial Competitiveness and Envi- ronmental Protection, the Committee on Ground Water Cleanup Alternatives, and the Committee on Hazardous Wastes in Highway Rights-of-Way. Dr. Greer also served on the NRC’s Board on Life Sciences from 2001 to 2004. She is a member of the NRC standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Envi- ronmental Contaminants and is a member of the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. Dr. Greer earned a M.S.P.H. in environmental science and engineering from the University of North Carolina School of Public Health in Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. in environmental toxicology from the Univer- sity of Maryland. Sharon L. R. Kardia is director of the Public Health Genetic Program and as- sociate professor of Epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the Univer- sity of Michigan. She is also the co-director for the Life Sciences Values and Society Program and the Michigan Center for Genomics and Public Health at the University of Michigan. She has served as a research scientist and professor at the University of Michigan since 1991, where her work in genetic epidemiol- ogy focuses on genetics of common chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and hypertension. She has served on the Institute of Medicine Commit- tee on Genomics and the Public’s Health in the 21st Century and the State of Michigan’s Cancer Genetics Network Advisory Committee. Dr. Kardia earned her M.A. in statistics and Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Michigan.

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258 Appendix A George D. Leikauf is a professor at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. Previously he served as the director of the Molecular Toxicology Division in the Department of Environmental Health at the Univer- sity of Cincinnati. He was also an adjunct professor in the Pulmonary and Criti- cal Care Division of the Department of Internal Medicine. Dr. Leikauf’s re- search interests include the role of gene-environment interactions in controlling pulmonary response to inhaled pollutants as well as genomic/proteomic tech- niques in diagnosis and treatment of environmental lung disease. He is associate director of the Center for Environmental Genetics at the University of Cincinnati and has served on numerous committees, including chairing National Institutes of Health Study Sections, and is on several editorial boards. He earned his Ph.D. in environmental health sciences from New York University Medical Center and completed his postdoctoral training at the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the University of California, San Francisco. Daniel C. Liebler is a professor of biochemistry and pharmacology at Vander- bilt University’s School of Medicine and is director of the Proteomics Labora- tory in the Mass Spectrometry Research Center. His research interests are in proteomic analysis of protein modifications and proteomic responses to cell in- jury. He was at the University of Arizona for 16 years, where he was a professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology. From 1999 to 2003, he served as director of the Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. He is the associate editor of Environmental Health Per- spectives: Toxicogenomics and Molecular Carcinogenesis. He also serves on the editorial boards of Chemical Research in Toxicology, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Chemical and Biological Interactions, and the Journal of Pro- teome Research. Dr. Liebler earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology from Vanderbilt University. Gary E. Marchant is a professor at Arizona State University (ASU) College of Law and executive director of the ASU Center for the Study of Law, Science and Technology. He is also a professor in the School of Life Sciences and the Lincoln Professor of Emerging Technologies, Law and Ethics at ASU. Dr. Mar- chant teaches and conducts research in environmental law; risk assessment and risk management; genetics and the law; and law, science, and technology. Be- fore joining the ASU faculty in 1999, he was a partner at the Washington, DC, office of the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis, where his practice focused on envi- ronmental and administrative law. He currently serves as a member on the Na- tional Research Council Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards. Dr. Marchant earned a Ph.D. in genetics from the Univer- sity of British Columbia, a Master of Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Harvard Journal of Law & Technology and editor of the Harvard Environmental Law Review.

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259 Appendix A John Quackenbush is a professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Com- putational Biology, Dana-Farber Institute and Department of Biostatistics, Har- vard University School of Public Health. His primary research areas are func- tional genomics and bioinformatics, and his work focuses on integrating diverse data types to provide insight into biological systems. He and his group have been investigating gene expression patterns in animal models with the goal of identifying mechanisms underlying a range of human diseases. They have also used microarrays to look for diagnostic and prognostic expression fingerprints in human breast and colon cancer, and he has been active in using plant models to develop methods for integrating functional genomic and metabolomic ap- proaches. Dr. Quackenbush is currently a member of the National Research Council standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. He earned a Ph.D. in theoretical particle physics from the Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles. Kenneth S. Ramos is a professor and chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Louisville Health Sciences Center. He also serves as director of the Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine. His research focuses on the study of molecular mechanisms of environmental pathogenesis, transcriptional control of retrotransposons, and inference of gene regulatory networks. He is editor of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences journal Environmental Health Perspectives: Toxicogenomics. Dr. Ramos has served on numerous National Research Council committees, including the Committee for a Review of Evidence Regarding the Link Between Exposure to Agent Orange and Diabetes, Committee to Review the Health Ef- fects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides: Second Biennial Update, HHMI Predoctoral Fellowships Panel on Neurosciences and Physiology, and Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides: First Biennial Update. He serves as chair of the Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Dr. Ramos received a Ph.D. in biochemical pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Texas at Austin. Mark A. Rothstein is the Herbert F. Boehl Chair of Law and Medicine and is director of the Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law at the University of Louisville. He has appointments in the Departments of Medicine and Family and Geriatric Medicine at the School of Medicine and at the Louis D. Brandeis School of Law. He earned a J.D. from Georgetown University. Mr. Rothstein’s interests include the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics, privacy, health policy, and employment law. He is chair of the Privacy and Confidential- ity Subcommittee of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, the federal advisory committee that advises the Secretary of Health and Human Ser- vices on health information policy, including the privacy regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. He has served on the Insti- tute of Medicine Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks: Issues and Implica-

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260 Appendix A tions for Health and is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Raymond E. Stoll is president of Stoll and Associates, LLC, a toxicology con- sulting company specializing in toxicologic, pharmaceutical, and biological is- sues in compound development. His areas of interest are computers in toxicol- ogy, carcinogenesis, alternative models in carcinogenicity assessment, and toxicogenomics and proteomics. Dr. Stoll was director of toxicology and safety assessment at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals from 1992 to 2003 and was a member of their product development committee. Currently, he holds the title of Highly Distinguished Scientist in Toxicology at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. Before working at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, he served as senior director of toxicology at Cetus Corporation and as director of toxicology and pathology at the Sandoz Research Institute. He is a past chair of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America preclinical safety committee. He earned his Ph.D. in pharmacology and toxicology from Purdue University. Roger G. Ulrich is currently chief development officer at Calistoga Pharmaceu- ticals, Inc. Previously he was senior scientific director with Rosetta Inpharmat- ics, LLC, Merck & Company, Inc. located in Seattle, Washington. He earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in biology, chemistry, and biomedical sciences from Western Michigan University and his Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology from West Virginia University. He joined the pathology and toxicology research de- partment at The Upjohn Company in 1983 (currently part of Pfizer) as a re- search scientist in ultrastructural pathology and cell biology, and was a Diplo- mate of the American Board of Toxicology from 1993 to 2003. He worked for Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, Illinois) from 1997 to 2001 as director of toxicology and director of cellular and molecular toxicology and joined Merck- Rosetta in 2001 as senior director. In his 22-year industrial career, he has con- tributed to the discovery and development of new drugs in a variety of therapeu- tic areas, including diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases; he pioneered the application of gene expression profiling to toxicology. He currently serves on the editorial boards of Xenobiotica and Toxicology In Vitro with past service on other editorial boards. He is an active member of several scientific societies and associations, including the American Association for the Study of Liver Dis- eases, the Health and Environmental Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute, and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Genomics Division. He continues to hold academic appointments. He has authored more than 100 full-length publications in cell biology and toxicol- ogy and pursues a research focus on cellular and molecular pharmacology and toxicology.

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261 Appendix A Helmut Zarbl is a principal investigator in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Prior to this he was a full member in the Divisions of Human Biology and Public Health Sciences at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHRCR). He was the director and a principal investigator for the National Insti- tute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)-sponsored FHFRC/University of Washington Toxicogenomics Research Consortium. His areas of expertise are in DNA microarray technology development and functional genomics and toxi- cogenomics, in particular understanding tissue, strain, species, and intraindi- vidual differences in response to environmental toxicants through gene expres- sion analysis. He is currently an affiliate professor at the University of Washington (UW) in the School of Medicine (pathology) and the School of Pub- lic Health and Community Medicine (toxicology). He is also a member of the UW/NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, where he is the director of Functional Genomics Core. Previously, he was an associate professor at MIT He earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from McGill University.