National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Microarray Center for 4 years. At NIEHS, she headed an interdisciplinary group of biologists, engineers, and computer scientists investigating applications of new genomic technologies to mechanistic toxicology. Dr. Afshari currently serves as chair of the Steering Committee on Application of Genomics and Proteomics to Mechanism-based Risk Assessment organized by the Health and Environmental Science Institute (HESI) of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and was chair of the Nephrotoxicity and Database working groups of the same ILSI-HESI Subcommittee for 2 years. She is also a member of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Genomics Subcommittee and is an associate editor of Toxicologic Pathology and Toxicological Sciences and a reviewing editor for Environmental Health Perspectives. She earned her Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and is a board-certified toxicologist.

John M. Balbus is the director of the health program at Environmental Defense and is also an adjunct associate professor of environmental health at Johns Hopkins University and George Washington University. His expertise is in epidemiology, toxicology, and risk science. He spent 7 years at George Washington University, where he was the founding director of the Center for Risk Science and Public Health and served as acting chair of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health. He was also an associate professor of medicine. Dr. Balbus serves as a committee member on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Children’s Health Protection Advisory Committee and a peer review panel member on the EPA Voluntary Children’s Chemical Exposure Program; he was on EPA Science Advisory Board review subcommittees for the National Air Toxics Research Plan and Computational Toxicology. Dr. Balbus earned his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University.

James S. Bus is director of external technology, toxicology and environmental research and consulting at Dow Chemical Company. His research interests include the mechanism of superoxide radical-mediated paraquat toxicity, the relationship between benzene metabolism and toxicity, metabolic pathways as defense mechanisms to toxicant exposure, and mode of action considerations in the use of transgenic animals for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity evaluations. Dr. Bus is involved with the CIIT Centers for Health Research advisory board and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute; he also chairs a long-range research committee for the American Chemistry Council and serves on the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. He is a member of the National Research Council standing Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants. Dr. Bus is a member of several professional societies, including the Society of Toxicology (serving as president, 1996-1997), the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Conference of Governmental

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