Short Term

  1. Use transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies to identify signatures of environmental exposures in target and surrogate tissues and fluids, primarily with animal models.

  2. Begin testing complex mixtures for possible identification of distinct exposure signatures.

  3. Examine the time course of chemical versus toxicogenomic signature persistence after initial chemical exposures.


  1. To enable the further development of toxicogenomic measures of exposure, include transcriptomic, metabolomic, and/or proteomic analysis of samples in large human population studies and studies designed to assess exposures at toxicant levels commonly encountered in the workplace and certain communities1. This would be especially useful for chemicals whose toxicity across a range of exposures is well established. Use these studies to begin addressing issues of interindividual variability, background noise, confounding effects of combined exposures, the ability of toxicogenomic approaches to report exposures quantitatively, and determining ranges of quantifiable responses.

  2. To enable the further development of toxicogenomic measures of exposure, include toxicogenomic analysis of samples in relevant case-control, cohort and panel studies that involve repeated measurements over time, as well as in clinical trials when possible and appropriate.

  3. Use the information collected from studies to help develop and populate a database that will support further development of toxicogenomic exposure assessment.

Long Term

  1. Adapt and apply toxicogenomic measurements to assess exposure by developing signatures of exposure to single compounds and complex mixtures that can be used in animal and human population studies.


See issues raised about the protection of humans in Chapter 11.

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