American Dental Association, 65

American Diabetes Association, 46, 135

American Dietetic Association (ADA), 46, 65

American Heart Association (AHA), 20, 46, 83, 85, 103, 135, 136, 139, 186

American Medical Association (AMA), 20, 27, 187

American Organization of Nurse Executives, 65

American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 134

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 46, 65, 85, 134

American Urological Association, 134

Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument, 136-137, 155, 231-232

AQA Alliance, 48

Australia, national programs, 124, 160, 161, 162, 163

Autologous bone marrow transplant, 64-65, 68

B

Back pain, 68, 69, 70, 95, 96, 139, 157

Benchmarks of appropriate care, 39, 40, 43

Bevacizumab (Avastin®) for age-related macular degeneration, 20, 92, 183

Bias.

See also Conflicts of interest

attrition, 98

defined, 8, 97, 154 n.1

detection/ascertainment, 98

information, 98

intellectual, 75, 129-130, 143, 144, 145, 158

minimizing, 91, 97-98, 129-132, 139, 142-146, 157, 159

performance, 98

publication, 97, 101, 159

reporting, 97, 98, 158

selection, 98

statistical, 8

Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association (BCBSA), 28

Technology Evaluation Center (TEC), 20, 26, 43, 44, 59, 60, 62, 67, 69-70, 71, 84, 85, 189

Breast cancer, 64-65, 68, 69, 72, 77, 92, 95, 96, 137

Burden-of-disease criterion, 6, 11, 13, 71-72, 73, 74, 76, 172-173, 197

C

Canada, national program, 28, 71, 102, 123, 124, 160, 161, 162, 163, 215

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), 71, 162, 215

Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, 28, 123

Cardiovascular care, 46, 51, 68, 82, 95, 96, 103, 135, 186

Case-control studies, 4, 23, 24, 91, 92, 223

Case series, 4, 23, 24, 91, 92, 102, 103

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 42

Center for Devices and Radiological Health, 42

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), 42

Center for Medical Effectiveness Research, 27

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 42, 65, 83-84, 206, 217

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), 64, 65, 188, 21

coverage determinations, 51, 59-61, 93, 94, 95

database, 216-217

expenditures on health services, 37, 38, 39, 50-51, 163

Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee (MCAC), 27, 45

Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee (MedCAC), 27, 45, 59-60, 62, 71, 75, 83, 84

regional differences in spending, 38, 39

utilization of evidence assessments, 26, 27, 28, 44, 45, 83, 84

Cervical cancer, 70, 94, 96, 205-217

Chalmers, Iain, 81, 86

Cholesterol reduction, 50, 68

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 63, 66, 95



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