CMS introduces Coverage with Evidence Development to generate data on the utilization and impacts of services being considered for a national Medicare coverage decision. The overall objective is to improve the evidence base for providers’ recommendations to Medicare beneficiaries (2005).

AHRQ creates the Effective Health Care Program, authorized by Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173) (2005).

The Institute of Medicine establishes the Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine (2006).

BCBSA, America’s Health Insurance Plans, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, and others propose substantial new investment in comparative effectiveness research.

NOTE: The USPSTF was modeled on the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, which the Canadian Government created in 1976 to weigh the scientific evidence for and against using specific preventive services in asymptomatic populations (Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, 2003).

SOURCES: Atkins et al. (2005); BCBSA (2007b); Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (2003); CMS (2006); Congressional Research Service (2005); Eddy (2005); Gazelle et al. (2005); Gray et al. (2003); Helfand (2005); IOM (1985, 2006); Levin (2001); Steinberg and Luce (2005); USPSTF (2007).

Chapter 2, An Imperative for Change, documents the imperative for immediate action to change how the nation marshals clinical evidence and applies it to endorse the use of the most effective clinical interventions.

Chapter 3, Setting Priorities for Evidence Assessment, provides the committee’s findings and recommendations on setting priorities for evidence assessment (systematic review) and describes key programmatic challenges in establishing a priority setting process for the Program.

Chapter 4, Systematic Reviews: The Central Link Between Evidence and Clinical Decision Making, reviews how high-quality evidence assessment (systematic review) is integral to identifying effective clinical services and presents the committee’s recommendations for ensuring high-quality evidence assessment. Key programmatic challenges are highlighted.

Chapter 5, Developing Trusted Clinical Practice Guidelines, presents the committee’s findings and recommendations for developing (or endorsing) standards for trusted clinical practice guidelines. Key programmatic challenges are highlighted.

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