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Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States
ethanol is completely soluble in water and rapidly biodegraded under most conditions, the presence of high ethanol concentrations enhances dissolution of more toxic gasoline compounds. In addition, rapid biodegradation of ethanol may inhibit the biodegradation of these compounds, which might then migrate farther off-site (Rice and Depue, 2001).
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McMahon, P.B., J.K.Böhlke, and C.P.Carney. 2007. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5294. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.
Parkin, G., P.Weyer, and C.L.Just. 2007. Riding the Bioeconomy Wave: Smooth Sailing or Rough Water for the Environment and Public Health? Proceedings of the 2007 lowa Water Conference—Water and Bioenergy, March 6, 2007, lowa State Center, Ames, lowa. Available online at http://www.aep.iastate.edu/water/2007/parkin.html. Accessed on November 12, 2007.
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Phillips, S., A.Aden, J.Jechura, D.Dayton, and T.Eggeman. 2007. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Technical Report NREL/TP-510-41168. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Rice, D.W., and R.T.Depue. 2001. Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate: Subsurface Fate and Transport of Gasoline Containing Ethanol. Report UCRL-AR-145380 for the California State Water Resources Control Board. Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Available online at http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/etohdocII/. Accessed on July 13, 2007.
Tilman, D., J.Hill, and C.Lehman. 2006. Carbon-negative Biofuels from Low-input High-diversity Grassland Biomass. Science 314:1598–1600.