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Inclex Abilitybob requirement matches, 24, 46, 70, 132 Blacks Access to jobs in California civil service system, 121-122 discrimination through denial of, 155-156 earnings and, 24 in government, as wage determinant, 141-142, 144-147, 149-150 strategies for improving, 2 training availability and, 72-73 Accountants, demand for, 71 Administrative assistants, 34 Affirmative action, 2 effects, 38, 133 financial success of companies and; 38 importance of, 85-86 American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, 180, 181, 198, 201, 203-205, 218-219 Artists (musicians, painters, dancers), labor market pressures on wages of, 71 Asians, characteristics, and earnings of, 137, 146, 150, 173; see also Minority wages; Minority workers; Occupations, minority-dominated Australia employment/unemployment rates in, 237-238 human capital effects on wages, 228-229 income distribution in, 234 institutional effects on pay equity, 15, 229-231, 244 job segregation and earnings ratios, 236 women's pay in, 15-16, 18, 222, 230-231, 243 Behavior of workers, see Occupational behavior; Occupational choices Birth cohort size, and earnings profiles of men, 71 young women, for wage rate studies, 73 251 characteristics of occupations of, 149 labor market crowding by, 6, 77, 84 wage disparities of, 6, 77, 80-85 see also Minority wages; Minority workers; Occupations, minority-dominated Bureau of Labor Statistics, 111 n.2 California civil service system Civil Service Act of 1913, 108 classification of jobs in, 108, 110, 114, 130, 132 comparable worth lawsuit against, 110, 125, 131, 133 demographic composition and pay rates in, 8, 110-127 job worth determinants in, 110, 116, 126 starting pay, 17, 111-113, 116, 118-119, 122-123 structure, 108-109, 110, 121, 131 trend analyses of pay rates, 120-125 Career behavior, 93-94, 97 Child care, 46, 47, 74 Childbearing, 4, 46 Children's presence in the home as factor in wages, 55, 75, 82-85, 148, 229 and occupational choices, 77, 80-81 Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, 91, 201, 235, 239 Civil service jobs effects of pay equity policies on, 18 occupational salaries and job requirements, 50 wage disparities in, 17 see also California civil service system; Iowa; Minnesota; Public sector Class action suits, 26 Clerical work defined, 89 design of pay equity programs for, 86 devaluation of, 126

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252 effects of comparable worth implementation on, 186, 188, 197 labor market crowding in, 6, 77, 85 pay equity adjustments in, 121, 123 sex composition and wage penalties in, 8, 118 wage disparities in, 8, 76, 78-79, 201 Collective bargaining, 6, 72, 131, 161, 185, 201-202, 208; see also Unions/Unionization Communications jobs demand index, 90 wage disparities in, 55, 63, 66, 68 Comparable worth in Australia, 12, 15-16, 18 defined, 10, 134, 156 effects of policies, 16-18, 158, 179, 181, 185-197, 200-201, 218-219, 245 evaluation of effects of, 12, 179-180, 182-185 female/male wage ratios, 196-197 in Great Britain, 12, 15-16, 18 human capital models, 187-191, 192-196 implementation of policies, 12-17, 50, 133, 180- 181, 202-204, 218-219 international perspective on, 15-17, 222-246 and intrafirm effects of occupational segregation, 52 in Iowa, 12-13, 18, 179-199 and job satisfaction, 204-207, 209-211, 217 limitations of, 6, 162, 164 litigation, 110, 125, 131 and market wages, 181, 187, 189-190, 194-196, 198 in Minnesota, 12, 13-15, 18, 200-219 occupation-specific effects of, 50, 182, 186, 188 percentage-female variable, 5, 11 political expediency in implementing, 181 predicted pay ratios, 196-197 proposed focus of national policy, 61 purpose of policies, 49, 50, 56, 60 returns to education and experience, 181-182, 187-192, 194-198 studies, 8, 12, 50-51, 57, 179 union support of, 181, 189 value in eliminating racial bias, 51, 52, 61 value in eliminating sex bias, 1-2, 6, 49, 51, 52, 57, 61 wage costs of, 12, 14, 132, 180, 198 Compensable factors in job evaluations, 13, 25 Construction, wage disparities in, 55, 63, 65, 68 Contractual agreements for wage protection, 72 Crowding, see Labor market crowding Current Population Survey, 4-5, 7, 15, 52-53, 57, 60, 158, 173, 183 Data processing jobs, devaluation of, 126 Demographic composition additive effects of, 115 effects of, and employment growth, 109, 126 and job worth, 2, 8, 9, 17, 107, 109, 116, 125- 126 and labor supply and demand, 123, 124-125 measures of, 172 penalties associated with, 117-122 and starting pay in California civil service system, 111-113, 117-125 INDEX and wages, 4, 5, 7, 8-11, 50, 51, 53-61, 63, 64, 68-69, 107-109, 111-112, 117-127, 135-139, 141-142, 144-150, 156, 159-162, 164, 171 see also Occupations, female-dominated; Occupations, minority-dominated Designers, 34 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 9, 53, 134, 139, 140, 141, 148, 158, 171, 173 Discrimination, 1, 23, 24, 29-30, 37, 154-155, 161, 202 n.5; see also Occupational segregation; Sex bias Earnings annualized, measurement of, 141, 145, 147 defined, 53 see also Salaries and salary disparities; Wages and wage disparities Economic conditions and job satisfaction, 205 and pay rates, 111, 126, 127 and work force reductions, 26-27 Education and training about pay equity, 203 access to, 72 comparable worth returns to, 3, 23, 27, 42, 62, 181-182, 186, 187-192, 194, 196, 197 complexity of job and, 149 and labor market crowding, 6, 18, 70-72, 76-77, 84 measures of, 140 mismatches with job requirements, 132 and promotions, 36 requirements for clerical work, 8 reserve labor pool and, 149 and salary growth, 33, 124 tracking and, 5-6 and wages, 6, 51, 55, 63-64, 67, 70-72, 76, 78, 82-85, 115-117, 119, 125, 134, 137, 139, 141-142, 144-147, 149-150, 160-162, 174, 184, 187, 228 Employer size defined for pay equity studies, 62 and intrafirm effects of occupational segregation, 52 and wages, 64, 67, 69 Employment growth for women in Britain and Australia, 237-238 economic recession and, 26-27 in exempt jobs, 38-39 and labor market crowding, 74-75 and pay equity implementation, 237-238, 245, 246 and promotions, 38 rates of, 71, 89-90 see also Labor force participation Employment rates as a job growth measure, 111 and labor market crowding, 6, 84-85, 124-125 state-specific, 89-90 and wages, 6, 81, 83, 84, 89-90, 109, 237-238 Engineers, senior, 34 Equal employment opportunity, 2, 8, 11, 26, 38, 86, 162; see also Affirmative action Equal Pay Act of 1963, 91, 201, 233, 235, 239

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INDEX Experience, see Work experience Family responsibilities and labor market preferences, 154-155 measures of, 140-141 stereotypes of, 137-138 and wage trade-offs, 138 and worker productivity, 47 see also Marital status Firm tenure, 27, 42 Fringe benefits, 162, 204, 205 Government sector, see Civil service jobs; Public sector Great Britain employment/unemployment rates in, 237 Equal Pay Act of 1970, 16, 232-233, 244 human capital effects on wages, 228-229 income distribution in, 234 institutional effects on pay equity, 16, 231-233, 244 job segregation and earnings ratios, 236 women's pay in, 12, 15-16, 18, 222, 230-231, 243 Health professions defined, 89, 90 demand index, 90 effects of comparable worth implementation on, 186, 188, 197 labor market crowding in, 6, 72-73, 77, 85 nursing, 8 wage disparities in, 64, 66, 76-79 Hispanics characteristics of occupations of, 149 see also Minority wages; Minority workers; Occupations, minority-dominated Human capital data sources for estimates of, 53 international variation in coefficients, 15-16, 223- 229 job attributes model of effects of comparable worth policies, 192-196 in large, single-fien' study, 27, 30-31~ 42 measures of, 15, 62, 183 model of earnings, 183, 187-191, 196, 223-229 and promotion differences, 35, 37 and salary growth, 30-33 in wage determination models, 12, 52 and wage disparities, 6, 15-16, 30-31, 35, 37, 38, 51, 55, 63-64, 67, 68, 70-72, 75-85, 109, 115-118, 125, 134, 137, 139, 174, 244 see also Education and training; Work experience Industrial sector characteristics of women's jobs in, 91 defined for pay equity studies, 62, 76, 90 demand indexes, 90 and intrafirm effects of occupational segregation, 52 and wages, 55-57, 61, 63, 65, 68-69 Iowa comparable worth plan, 12-13, 18, 179-199 wage patterns for government employees in, 187 2S3 Job assignment, gender differences in, 7, 19 Job classification in California civil service system, 108, 110, 114, 130, 132 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 9, 53, 134, 139, 140, 141, 148, 171 factoring of, 140, 141, 148, 158-159, 161 n.l6, 171, 174 scores, 202 sex bias in, 71, 125, 132 stereotypes in, 125, 132 for wage determination, 25, 53 Job content/requirements categories, 12, 50, 53 in comparable worth studies, 50 comparison across occupations, 136 measures of, 8, 11, 62, 139-140, 148 physical activity, 140, 143-145, 147, 193 physical dexterity/perceptual ability, 139-140, 143-147 "people things," 140 quantifying, 111 specification of, 115 n.7, 123-124 substantive complexity, 139, 141, 143-147, 149- 150 and wages, 11, 51, 52, 55, 57, 63, 65, 68, 120, 123-125, 138-139 working conditions, 140-143, 145, 147 Job evaluation, 1 for comparable worth studies, 50, 182-183, 202, 204 compensable factors in, 13, 25, 111-112, 162, 180 measure of job worth, 107, 110 point factor system, 13, 50, 51 n.l, 110, 183, 193, 194-195, 202-203 policy-capturing plans vs. a priori plans, 51 n.1 Job integration, 71 Job ladders, 72, 115, 116 Job levels defined, 3 in exempt pay structures, 25 female/male ratio of changes in, 27 n.9 of new entrants, 28 pay gaps within, 30 n.12 and percentage female in occupation, 34, 39 promotions and, 4, 24, 27, 32, 34-36, 45 salary and, 3, 5, 24, 28-29, 30-31, 34, 35, 38, 44 salary growth/increases and, 29-33, 35, 39 Job mobility, and wages, 163, 175 Job opportunities, 23, 96, 136 Job satisfaction, 200, 204-207, 209-211, 217 Job tenure comparable worth returns to, 186-190, 192, 194 defined, 27 as a measure of job performance, 3 promotions and, 36, 46 salary and, 28 and salary growth/increases, 31, 33, 46 treatment in pay equity studies, 42 and wage growth, 46 wages and, 51, 55, 63-64, 68, 161, 184 see also Work experience

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254 Jobs effort required for, 162, 179, 195 enduring, and segregation, 120-122, 125, 132- 133 exempt, 25-28 recently created, and segregation, 121-122, 126, 132-133 responsibility required in, 162 turnover in, see Turnover see also Occupations Labor demand, see Supply and demand Labor force participation in OECD countries, 222 by prime-aged men, 74 by sex and race composition of occupation, 58-59 see also Employment growth for women Labor market crowding, 6-7, 13, 18, 70-72, 74, 76- 77, 84, 85, 109, 122, 136-137; see also Clerical work; Managerial work; Professional/ technical work; Teaching Labor markets discrimination, evidence of, 23 female, differences in, 71-72 general variables in, 73-75 measurement of conditions in, 140-L41 occupational distinctions in, 136, 140-141 segmentation of, 171 structure, and pay equity implementation, 15-18, 229-237, 244, 246 Labor supply, see Supply and demand Law enforcement jobs, 126, 186, 188 Longitudinal studies of salaries, salary growth, and promotions, 24-25, 27, 29, 31, 39, 42 Maintenance supervisor, 34 Managerial work deemed, 89 labor market crowding in, 6, 85 risk-taking by women in, 96 self-confidence factor in, 95 wage disparities in, 76, 78, 180 women's potential for, 93, 95 Manufacturing sector industrial or firm segregation within, 5 industry-specific demand index, 90 sex composition of jobs and wages in, 5, 49, 55, 59-60, 61, 63, 65-66 Marital status and bargaining power, 137 and competition for jobs, 74 of men in female-dominated occupations, 10 stereotypes associated with, 137-138 and wages, 10, 55 n.2, 75, 136, 137-139, 141- 142, 144-149, 160, 171-172, 228 see also Family responsibilities Minimum wage, 16 Mining, wage disparities in, 55, 63, 65, 68 Minnesota Association of Professional Employees, 204 Council on Economic Status of Women, 200, 201 effects of pay equity implementation in, 12, 13- 15, 18, 200-219 State Employees Pay Equity Act, 200-202 INDEX work force characteristics, 207-208 Minority wages effects of comparable worth implementation on, 181, 184, 186, 188-190, 192, 194, 198 factors affecting, 33 job and personal skills and, 5 proportion in occupation and, see Occupations, minority-dominated starting pay, 9 see also Blacks; Hispanics Minority workers in female-dominated occupations, 10 promotion differences between men and women, 36 National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Girls, 158 New York, occupational segregation by race in, 50- 51 Nonmanufacturing sector race composition of occupation, and wages in, 5, 60 sex composition of occupation, and wages in, 5, 59-60, 61 Occupational choices and attraction to occupations, 92 earnings differences and, 92 educational attainment and, 77, 80-81 expectations and, 92, 93 gender differences in processes, 97, 154-155 and information on occupations, 93-94, 97, 98 and labor market crowding, 86 nontraditional, 92-93, 94, 95, 97 personality differences and, 154 psychological factors affecting, 7-8, 86-87, 154 research needs on, 7 and risk-taking behavior, 96 and salary perceptions, 99 self-confidence and, 93, 94-96 sex bias in, 91 socialization processes and, 92, 154 n.3 working conditions and, 154 Occupational segregation in California civil service system, 114, 116-117, 132, 133 and earnings, 2-3, 59-61, 71 extent of, 153 family responsibilities and, 154-155 intrafirm effects of, 52 within job ladders, 115, 116 in manufacturing, 5 by race, see Occupations, minority-dominated by sex, see Occupations, female-dominated sex-role socialization and, 23-24 and wage disparity, 5, 6, 49, 50-51 within-f~rm, 24 Occupations access to, 24, 72 array of, for women, 71 attributes of, 9-10; see also Abilityjob requirement matches; Job content/ requirements; Working conditions barriers to entry into, 72

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INDEX choices by women, see Occupational choices classification of, 8, 9-10, 24, 35, 53 dead-end, 158 educational requirements of, and wages, 6 effect 'of comparable worth policies on, 182, 186 perceptions of value of, 94 prestigious, 94, 96, 158 see also Jobs; Social organization of labor markets Occupations, female-dominated characteristics of, 10, 134, 149, 153, 155 data sources on, 53 defined, 57, 58, 60, 62, 114 n.5 devaluation of, 2, 8, 9, 17, 107, 109, 116, 119, 124-126, 131-132, 142-143, 174, 191, 202 effects of comparable worth implementation on, 188, 194-196 employee knowledge about pay equity, 205 interactive effects of race composition, 110, 114- 115 job content of, 10 job level of, 34, 37, 39 labor force participation by, 58-59 and labor market crowding, 10, 124-125 measures of, 50, 110 mobility patterns and changes in composition of, 163-164 negative effects for men, 10, 12, 19 new jobs, 9 pay changes from implementation of comparable worth, 186 performance rating of, 34, 37 promotions in, 7, 34, 35, 37-39 salaries in, 8-9, 34-35, 37-39, 45, 107 salary growth in, 7, 35 skill factors in, 138 starting pay in, 8-9, 11, 111-113 unionization of, 10 wage setting for, 156 wages in, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10-12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 34, 49-51, 53-57, 60-61, 63-68, 91, 107, 114, 135-139, 141-142, 144-150, 156, 159-162, 164, 171, 173-174, 184 worker experience levels in, 10 Occupations, minority-dominated characteristics of, 149 data sources on, 53 defined, 57, 58, 60, 62, 114 n.5 devaluation of, 109, 116, 119, 124, 125, 131-132 interactive effects of sex composition, 10, 110, 114-115 and labor force participation, 58-59 and labor market crowding, 124-125 measures of, 110 starting pay of, 111-113 wages of, 5, 8-9, 10, 50-51, 53-57, 60-61, 63- 64, 68, 107, 114, 136, 137, 141-142, 144-150, 162-163 see also Minority wages Oregon, 77, 79, 81, 90 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 222 Part-time employment defined for pay equity studies, 62 255 and wage disparities, 64, 67, 69 Pay, see Salaries and salary disparities; Wages and wage disparities Pay equity and competition for jobs, 86 defined, 200 n. l, 202 design of programs, 86 education of employees about, 203 effects of programs, 87, 121 experience of employees with, 207, 212-216 institutional effects on, 229-237 knowledge of, 14-15, 204, 205, 207, 209-212 and labor market crowding, 70, 86 labor market structure, and implementation of, 15-18, 229-237, 244, 246 legislation in United States, effects of, 16 notification of implementation of 203-204 obstacles to, 126, 133 perceived impact of, 209-211, 216-218 policy history in Minnesota, 201-204 principles, 202 social movement potential of, 14 support for, 206, 208-211 see also Comparable worth; Studies of pay equity; Survey of pay equity attitudes and knowledge Pay rates, see Salaries and salary disparities; Wages and wage disparities demographic composition and, 8-9, 111-120 economic conditions and, 111 Performance appraisals job tenure in, 3 as a measure of productivity, 24 process, 26 rating scales, 3, 26 supervisory ratings in, 26, 28 n.ll use in pay equity studies, 27, 28 n.ll, 42 Performance rating expectations and, 94 and percentage female of occupation, 34 and promotion, 24, 26, 34-36, 94 return rates for, 30, 31-32, 34, 38 and salary growth/increases, 3, 26, 30, 31-33, 38 use in pay equity studies, 42 and wage disparities, 30-31, 34, 35, 37, 38 by women, 95 Personal characteristics in evaluation of comparable worth policies, 182- 183 measures of, 158, 160-161, 182 wages and, 184 Personal service occupations defined, 89, 90 demand index, 90 labor market crowding in, 6, 85 wage disparities in, 76-79 Personality differences, 154, 158, 173; see also Risk- taking behavior Physical requirements measures of, 139-140 and productivity, 154 and wages, 55, 63, 65, 68 Population growth and labor market crowding, 6, 78, 81, 83-85 and state-specific employment rates, 89-90

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256 Productivity, see Worker productivity Professional/technical work defined, 89 effect of comparable worth implementation on, 189-192, 194, 196 labor market crowding in, 6, 72-73, 85 wage disparities in, 64, 66, 76, 78-79 Promotions attitudinal barriers to, 94-96 educational attainment and, 36, 43 endowment levels and, 37 and exiting employees, 45-46 experience and, 4, 7, 26, 36, 43, 46 financial success of companies and, 38 gender differences in, 18, 27 n.9, 35, 38, 44, 46 and human capital variables, 32, 35-37 and job level, 4, 24, 27 n.9, 32, 34-37, 43, 45 job tenure and, 36, 43 minority differences in, 36, 43 number of, 27-28, 44 opportunities, 2, 4 performance and, 24, 26, 35-38, 43, 46 and proportion female of a job, 7, 38, 39 rates of, 4, 45 risk-taking behavior and, 93, 96-97 and salary growth/increases, 3, 26, 27-28, 30-33, 35, 37, 43 size determinants, 26 standards for women, 25, 38 tenure and, 36, 43 turnover of women and, 155 over time, 25, 27-28 from within firms, 72 women's access to, 26 women's decisions on, 95 women's potential for, 93 Psychological differences, see Occupational choices Public sector access to employment in, as wage determinant, 141-142, 144-147, 149-150 comparable worth studies in, 50 defined for pay equity studies, 62 federal civil service system wage determination, 109 job requirements, 50 occupational salaries, 50 occupational segregation and earnings in, 50, 55, 61 proportion female in occupation, and wages in, 5, 8, 9, 59-60, 67, 69 union status in, 14 wage rates relative to private sector, 137 see also California civil service system Quality of Employment Survey, 158 Race Regional variables, 52, 55-57, 61-63, 65, 68; see also Urbanization and wages Research needs, 7-8, 11, 18-19, 24, 38-39, 46-47, 86, 99, 125, 133, 150 Reserve labor pool size, as wage correlate, 141-142, 144-147, 149-150 INDEX Responsibility measures of, 179, 195 and wages, 10 Risk-taking behavior, 7-8, 93, 96-98 Salaries and salary disparities changes over time, 25, 35 compression, 204 compromises on, 97, 98 cost of living and, 74 defined, 50 demographic composition of jobs and, 8, 11, 34, 37, 45 elimination over time, 39 and exiting employees, 45-46 and expectations, 92 explanations for, 2, 5, 30-31, 35-37, 134-135 hours worked and, 45 human capital variables and, 30-31, 35, 37, 135 individual, 50 and job categories, 3 and job content, 8 job level and, 3, 5, 24, 28-29, 30-31, 35, 37, 44 job opportunities and, 136 job worth and, 135 in a large, private firm, 28, 30-31, 44, 46 negotiation strategies, 99 occupational, 50 and occupational choices, 92 percentage female in occupations and, 4, 5, 7, 8 percentage minorities in occupations and, 5, 8 perceptions of, 7, 94, 97-99, 204 performance rating and, 30-31, 35, 37 prime-aged men's, and female wage rates, 76-77, 79, 81, 83-84 promotions and, 37 psychological differences between men and women and, 7 in public sector, 8 risk-taking behavior and, 96-98 self-confidence and, 98-99 sex bias in, 91, 135 skill level and, 135 starting pay, 8-9, 18, 110-113, 116-119, 121, 122-123, 138 surveys, 25 and turnover rates for women, 47 of women in nontraditional occupations, 94 worker productivity and, 5, 47 Salary growth/increases advantage of women, 30-31, 37, 38, 44 asking for, 7, 95, 97, 99 childbearing and, 46 defined, 27 demographic composition of jobs and, 133 education and, 33, 43, 124 experience and, 31, 33, 43, 46, 124 and exiting employees, 45-46 human capital differences and, 30-33, 37 job level and, 29-33, 39, 43, 44 job revision and, 124 job tenure and, 30 n.l3, 31, 33, 43, 46

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INDEX limit on, to implement comparable worth pay cuts, 180 male/female differences, 4, 18, 29-30, 32, 35, 43 merit rating and, 25-26 of minorities, 33, 43 and performance, 24-26, 30, 31-33, 38, 43, 46 position in salary range and, 26 promotions and, 3, 26-28, 30-33, 35, 37, 43 and proportion female of a job, 7, 38, 39 recent gender changes in, 153 risk-taking behavior and, 93, 96-97 size of, 44 tenure, 33, 43 Sales work, 6, 76-79, 85, 89 Secretarial work defined, 89 design of pay equity programs for, 86 labor market crowding in, 6, 77, 85, 86 sex composition of jobs and wage penalties, 34 wage disparities in, 34, 76, 78-79 Segregation, see Occupational segregation Self-confidence, 93, 94-98 Self-employment opportunities, as wage correlate, 141-142, 145, 146-147, 149-150 Service industries demand index, 90 sex composition of jobs and wages in, 49, 55, 63- 64, 66-69, 121 n.l2 see also specific occupations Sex bias causes of, 154-156 degree of, currently, 153 evidence of, 1, 153 in job classification, 125 litigation against California civil service system, 110, 125, 131, 133 in occupational choices, 91 productivity differences and, 154 in salaries, 91 in specification of earnings function of comparable worth study, 191 Sex composition of jobs, see Occupations, female- dominated Sex-role socialization and occupational choices, 91-93, 154 n.3 and occupational segregation, 7-8, 23-24 and risk-taking behavior, 7 and salary perceptions, 99 and self-confidence, 94-96 Skill level and labor market crowding, 6 and labor market segmentation, 171 measures of, 136, 179, 195 and wage disparities, 5, 6, 9, 10, 135, 138, 173, 186 Social organization of labor markets defined, 136 indicators of, 140-141 and wage rates, 135, 136, 137, 139, 149-150, 171 see also Occupations, female-dominated; Occupations, minority-dominated; Unions/ . . . unlonlzahon Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 52, 55, 62, 63, 65, 68 257 South Dakota, 77, 79, 81, 90 Substitutability of workers, 16, 73, 74, 85 Supply and demand in Australia, and comparable worth, 16 defined, 136 effects of demographic composition of jobs on, 123 measures of, 71, 109, 140, 157 occupational variation in, 135 state-specific variables in, 74, 89-90 and wage determination, 70, 135 see also Labor market crowding Survey of Time Use in Economic and Social Accounts, 158, 173 Teaching defined, 89, 90 demand index, 90 effects of comparable worth implementation on, 186, 188 labor market crowding in, 6, 72-73, 74, 76 wage disparities in, 64, 66, 76, 78-79, 127 Technologists, 34 Tenure, 33, 36, 62; see also Job tenure Tracking, 5-6 Transportation work defined, 90 demand index, 90 effects of comparable worth implementation on, 186, 188 wage disparities in, 55, 63, 65, 66, 68 Turnover, 47, 155, 172 Unemployment rates and competition for female-dominated jobs, 74 computation of, 74 effects of comparable worth policies on, 16-17, 237-238, 245, 246 as indices of labor supply, 73-75, 76 state-specific, 89-90 and substitution of cheaper labor, 74 and wage disparities, 74, 76-79, 81, 83, 84, 89- 90, 136, 139-141, 143-144, 149, 150, 172, 237-238 Unions/unionization defined for pay equity studies, 62, 141, 158 discrimination within unions, 161 of female-dominated occupations, 10 and intrafirm effects of occupational segregation, 52 measures of, 185 role in implementation of pay equity, 14, 86, 201-202, 218-219, 231-232, 244 support of comparable worth policies, 181, 203 and wages, 10, 11, 16, 64, 67, 69, 125, 133, 136, 138, 141, 143-148, 149, 160-161, 181, 184, 186, 187, 189-192, 194, 196, 198 see also Collective bargaining United States effects of pay equity legislation in, 16, 18, 233, 235-236 employment/unemployment rates in, 237 human capital effects on wages, 228-229 institutional effects on pay equity, 233-237, 244

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258 job segregation and earnings ratios, 236 within-firm job comparability requirements in, 158 Urbanization and wages, 138, 141-142, 145, 147, 149, 228; see also Regional variables U.S. Census, 6, 73, 79, 89-90, 138, 139, 140, 159 Wage determination in Australia, 15 childbearing and, 46 coefficients in log wage equations, 55, 65-67 in federal civil service system, 109 in female labor markets, 5 gender composition of jobs and, 107, 156 human capital and, 52 job characteristics and, 52 pay policy line, 25 and percentage female of occupations, 10, 17 salary surveys for, 25 strategies for eliminating sex bias in, 1; see also Affirmative action; Comparable worth; Equal employment opportunity; Pay equity and supply and demand, 70, 135 see also California civil service system Wages and wage disparities and access to jobs, 24 biases in assessing, 127 and birth cohort size, 71 costs of comparable worth policies, 12, 14, 132 employment rates and, 6, 81, 83 in enduring jobs, 120-122 entry level, 51 explanations for, 2, 5, 15-16, 17, 30-31, 35-37, 55, 85, 134-135, 230 female/male ratios, 196-197 gender differences in, 3-8 hours worked and, 159 in hourly wages, 10, 59-60, 76, 79, 141 individual wages, 7, 50-52 industrial differences and, 5, 49, 55, 57, 59-61, 63-69 international, 15-17, 229-237, 243 across job categories, 3-4, 5, 117-118 job assignment and, 7, 19 job characteristics and, 11, 12, 50, 51, 57, 63, 65, 107, 138 job level and, 3, 24 and job tenure, 46, 51, 55, 63, 64, 68 marital status and, 137-138 market wages and comparable worth implementation, 187' 189-190, 194-196, 198 of minorities, 6, 77, 80-85 national differentials, 56-57 occupational differences and, 9-12 occupational market determinants of, 134-150 occupational segregation and, 4-6 percentage female, effects of, see Occupations, female-dominated, wages in policies for eliminating, 6 population size and, 6 INDEX protection of, 13, 72, 86 psychological differences between men and women and, 7 in public sector, 8, 62, 64, 67, 69 regional differences and, 5, 51, 55, 57, 61, 63, 65, 68 relocation to another state and, 77, 81 reservation wages, 46 responsibility and, 10 scales and seniority, 72 skill level and, 10, 13, 107 social organization and, 136 trade-offs by women for, 122, 138 unemployment rates and, 74, 76-81, 83, 84, 136, 139 unionization and, 10, 11, 14, 55, 63, 67, 69 worker characteristics and, 12, 23, 51 worker productivity and, 5, 10, 11, 17, 49, 51, 52, 57, 60-61, 173-174 working conditions and, 10, 63, 65, 68 see also Demographic composition; Human capital; Labor market crowding; Salaries and salary disparities; Salary growth/increases; Worker productivity Work experience comparable worth returns to, 181-182, 187-192, 194, 196, 197 defined, 62, 79 discrimination and, 23 in female-dominated occupations, 10 and labor market crowding, 70-71, 75-76 measures of, 3, 5, 10, 27, 42, 75, 140, 148, 158, 245 and productivity, 154 and promotion, 4, 26, 34, 36 potential experience, 5, 10, 27, 31, 34, 42, 55, 68, 76, 78-80, 82 and salary increases, 31, 33, 124 sex differences in, 154 and wages, 38, 51, 55, 63-64, 68, 70-72, 75, 76- 78, 80-85, 115-117, 119, 125, 134, 135, 137, 141-142, 144-150, 160, 161, 174, 184, 187, 228 see also Firm tenure; Job tenure Worker productivity and abilitybob requirement matches, 24 child care responsibilities and, 47 measures of, 5-6, 24, 39, 46, 56; see also Performance appraisals past work experience and, 154 personality differences and, 154 physical differences and, 154 salary and, 47, 137 sex-related differences in, 154 and wage disparities, 5, 10, 11, 49, 51, 57, 60- 61, 173-174, 184 Working conditions career decisions on basis of, 154 measures of, 140, 158, 179, 195 undesirable, 140 and wage disparities, 10, 55, 63, 65, 68, 162