References

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 1996. Carbon Monoxide. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 6th Ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 2001. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 7th Ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2002. TLVs and BEIs: Based on the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2004. TLVs and BEIs: Based in the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2006. TLVs and BEIs: Based in the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

Alarie, Y. 2002. Toxicity of fire smoke. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 32(4):259-289.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2004. Guidance Manual for the Assessment of Joint Toxic Action of Chemical Mixtures. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/interactionprofiles/IP-ga/ipga.pdf [accessed Aug. 6, 2007].

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2006. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp8.pdf [accessed Aug. 6, 2007].

Ballantyne, B. 1976. Changes in blood cyanide as a function of storage time and temperature. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 16(4):305-310.

Bazar, M.A. 2006. Assessment of Combined Health Effect of Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide at Low Levels for Military Unique Occupational Exposure. Toxicology Study No. 8685-06. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. February 2006.

Cailleux, A., J.F. Subra, P. Riberi, E. Tuchais, A. Premel-Cabic, and P. Allain. 1988. Cyanide and thiocyanate blood levels in patients with renal failure or respiratory disease. J. Med. 19(5-6):345-351.

Chance, B. 1965. Pp. 929 – 938 in Oxidases and Related Redox Systems: Proceedings, T.E. King, H.S. Mason, and M. Morrison, eds. New York: Wiley.

Chaturvedi, A.K., D.C. Sanders, B.R. Endecott, and R.M. Ritter. 1995. Exposures to carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and their mixtures: Interrelationship between gas exposure concentration, time to incapacitation, carboxyhemoglobin, and blood cyanide in rats. J. Appl. Toxicol. 15(5):357-363.

Coburn, R.F., and H.J. Forman. 1987. Carbon monoxide toxicity. Pp. 439-456 in Handbook of Physiology, Section 3. Respiratory System, Vol. 4. Gas Exchange, L.E. Farhi, and S.M. Tenney, eds. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.

Coburn, R.F., R.E. Forster. and P.B. Kane. 1965. Considerations of the physiological variables that determine the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in man. J. Clin. Invest. 44(11):1899-1910.

Crane, C.R., D.C. Sanders, and B.R. Endecott. 1989. Inhalation Toxicology: IX. Times to Incapacitation for Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Alone and to Mixtures of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Cyanide. DOT/FAA/AM-89/4. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. January 1989.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 20
References ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 1996. Carbon Monoxide. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 6th Ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 2001. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 7th Ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2002. TLVs and BEIs: Based on the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2004. TLVs and BEIs: Based in the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists). 2006. TLVs and BEIs: Based in the Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH. Alarie, Y. 2002. Toxicity of fire smoke. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 32(4):259-289. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2004. Guidance Manual for the Assessment of Joint Toxic Action of Chemical Mixtures. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/interactionprofiles/IP-ga/ipga.pdf [accessed Aug. 6, 2007]. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2006. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp8.pdf [accessed Aug. 6, 2007]. Ballantyne, B. 1976. Changes in blood cyanide as a function of storage time and temperature. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 16(4):305-310. Bazar, M.A. 2006. Assessment of Combined Health Effect of Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide at Low Levels for Military Unique Occupational Exposure. Toxicology Study No. 8685-06. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. February 2006. Cailleux, A., J.F. Subra, P. Riberi, E. Tuchais, A. Premel-Cabic, and P. Allain. 1988. Cyanide and thiocyanate blood levels in patients with renal failure or respiratory disease. J. Med. 19(5-6):345-351. Chance, B. 1965. Pp. 929 – 938 in Oxidases and Related Redox Systems: Proceedings, T.E. King, H.S. Mason, and M. Morrison, eds. New York: Wiley. Chaturvedi, A.K., D.C. Sanders, B.R. Endecott, and R.M. Ritter. 1995. Exposures to carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and their mixtures: Interrelationship between gas exposure concentration, time to incapacitation, carboxyhemoglobin, and blood cyanide in rats. J. Appl. Toxicol. 15(5):357-363. Coburn, R.F., and H.J. Forman. 1987. Carbon monoxide toxicity. Pp. 439-456 in Handbook of Physiology, Section 3. Respiratory System, Vol. 4. Gas Exchange, L.E. Farhi, and S.M. Tenney, eds. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society. Coburn, R.F., R.E. Forster. and P.B. Kane. 1965. Considerations of the physiological variables that determine the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in man. J. Clin. Invest. 44(11):1899-1910. Crane, C.R., D.C. Sanders, and B.R. Endecott. 1989. Inhalation Toxicology: IX. Times to Incapacitation for Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Alone and to Mixtures of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Cyanide. DOT/FAA/AM-89/4. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. January 1989. 20

OCR for page 20
References DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 1972. Draft Criteria Documents (Carbon Monoxide and Beryllium). Memorandum for Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Environmental Quality), from H.B. Jennings, Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of the Army, Washington, DC. June 21, 1972. DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 1981. Military Handbook: Human Factors Engineering Design Criteria for Army Materiel (Metric). MIL-HDBK-759C[MI]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. El-Ghawabi, S.H., M.A. Gaafar, A.A. El-Saharti, S.H. Ahmed, K.K. Malash, and R. Fares. 1975. Chronic cyanide exposure: A clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study. Br. J. Ind. Med. 32(3):215-219. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk Assessment for Chemical Mixture. EPA/630R-00/002. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/raf/pdfs/chem_mix/chem_mix_08_2001.pdf [accessed Aug. 6, 2007]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Interim Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs): Carbon Monoxide (CAS Reg. No. 630-08-0). AEGL Program. Office of Pollution, Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency February 2005 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/ tsd306.pdf [accessed Feb. 14, 2008]. Esposito, F.M., and Y. Alarie. 1988. Inhalation toxicity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide gases released during the thermal decomposition of polymers. J. Fire Sci. 6(3):195-242. Haddad, S., M. Beliveau, R. Tardif, and K. Krishnan. 2001. A PBPK modeling-based approach to account for interactions in the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Toxicol. Sci. 63(1):125-131. Hardy, H.L., W.M. Jeffries, M.M. Wasserman, and W.R. Waddell. 1950. Thiocyanate effect following industrial cyanide exposure – report of two cases. N. Engl. J. Med. 242(25):968-972. Hartzell, G.E., D.N. Priest, and W.G. Switzer. 1985a. Modeling of toxicological effects of fire gases: II. Mathematical modeling of intoxication of rats by carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. J. Fire Sci. 3(2):115-128. Hartzell, G.E., W.G. Switzer, and D.N. Priest. 1985b. Modeling of toxicological effects of fire gases: V. Mathematical modeling of intoxication of rats by combined carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide atmospheres. J. Fire Sci. 3(5):330-342. Higgins, E.A., V.F. Fiotrica, A.A. Thomas, and H.V. Davis. 1971. The Acute Toxicity of Brief Exposure to HF, HCl, NO2 and HCN Singly and in Combination with CO. FAA-AM-71-41. Washington, DC: Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal Aviation Administration. Kaplan, H.L. 1988. Evaluating the biological hazards of combustion products. Pp. 409-470 in Product Safety Evaluation Handbook, S.C. Gad, ed. New York: Marcel Dekker. Lam, C.W., and K.L. Wong. 2000. Hydrogen cyanide. Pp. 330-365 in Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Vol. 4. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Levin, B.C., M. Paabo, J.L. Gurman, and S.E. Harris. 1987. Effects of exposure to single or multiple combinations of the predominant toxic gases and low oxygen atmospheres produced in fires. Toxicol. Sci. 9(2):236-250. Levin, B.C., J.L. Gurman, M. Paabo, L. Baier, and T. Holt. 1988. Toxicological effects of different exposure times to the fire gases: Carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide or to carbon monoxide combined with hydrogen cyanide or carbon dioxide. Pp. 368-383 in 9th Joint Panel Meeting of the UJNR Panel on Fire Research and Safety, May 1987, Boston, MA, N.H. Jason and B.A. Houston, eds. NBSIR 88-3753. Gaithersburg, MD: National Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire Research. Lynch, R.D. 1975. On the Non-existence of Synergism between Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide. Fire Research Note No. 1035. Fire Research Station, Borehamwood, England. Maehly, A.C., and A. Swensson. 1970. Cyanide and thiocyanate levels in blood and urine of workers with low-grade exposure to cyanide. Int. Arch. Arbeitsmed. 27(3):195-209. Mlingi, N., N.H. Poulter, and H. Rosling. 1992. An outbreak of acute intoxications from consumption of insufficiently processed cassava in Tanzania. Nutr. Res. 12(6):677-687. Moore, S.J., I.K. Ho, and A.S. Hume. 1991. Severe hypoxia produced by concomitant intoxication with sublethal doses of carbon monoxide and cyanide. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 109(3):412-420. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2005. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. NIOSH Publication No. 2005-149. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg [accessed Aug. 7, 2007]. Norris, J.C., S.J. Moore, and A.S. Hume. 1986. Synergistic lethality induced by the combination of carbon monoxide and cyanide. Toxicology 40(2):121-129. 21

OCR for page 20
Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Hydrogen cyanide. Pp. 211-264 in Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Pitt, B.R., E.P. Radford, G.H. Gurtner, and R.J. Traystman. 1979. Interaction of carbon monoxide and cyanide on cerebral circulation and metabolism. Arch. Environ. Health 34(5):345-349. Purser, D.A. 1984. A bioassay model for testing the incapacitating effects of exposure to combustion product atmospheres using cynomolgus monkeys. J. Fire Sci. 2(1):20-36. Purser, D.A., and K.R. Berrill. 1983. Effects of carbon monoxide on behavior in monkeys in relation to human fire hazard. Arch. Environ. Health 38(5):308-315. Purser, D.A., P. Grimshaw, and K.R. Berrill. 1984. Intoxication by cyanide in fires: A study in monkeys using polyacrylonitrile. Arch. Environ. Health 39(6):394-400. Rehling, C.J. 1967. Poison residue in human tissues. Pp. 363-386 in Progress in Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 3, A. Stohling, ed. New York: Academic Press. Sanders, D.C., A.K. Chaturvedi, B.R. Endecott, R.M. Ritter, and N. Vu. 1994. Toxicity of Carbon Monoxide- Hydrogen Cyanide Gas Mixtures: Expose Concentration, Time-to-Incapacitation, Carboxyhemoglobin, and Blood Cyanide Parameters. Final Report DOT/FAA/AM-94/7, Civil Aeromedical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma City, OK. Smith, S.R., S. Steinberg, and J.C. Gaydos. 1996. Errors in derivations of the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation for predicting carboxyhemoglobin. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 57(7):621-625. WHO (World Health Organization). 1999. Carbon Monoxide, 2nd Ed. Environmental Health Criteria 213. Geneva: World Health Organization. Wilson, D.F., M Erecinska, and E.S. Brocklehurst. 1972. The chemical properties of cytochrome c oxidase in intact mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 151(1):180-187. Yamamoto, K., and C. Kuwahara. 1981. A study on the combined action of CO and HCN in terms of concentration- time products. Z. Rechtsmed. 86(4):287-294. 22