Recommendation 3-10. Develop an all-weather wake vortex measurement system that provides high-resolution measurements of wake vortex characteristics sufficient to validate wake vortex modeling.

Finding 3-14. Although the current air transportation system was designed to avoid wake vortex encounters, they do occur and are safely tolerated using present spacing criteria.

Finding 3-15. It is difficult to quantify acceptable reductions in wake turbulence spacing because there is no agreed metric for, nor definition of, hazard boundaries for wake encounters.

Recommendation 3-11. A hazard boundary needs to be defined and used as a metric in forming spacing criteria.

Finding 3-16. Implementing a system to gather data on wake events in the short term could establish a baseline that could be used to quantitatively evaluate potential solutions, as well as gain the support from the operator and ATC community that will be necessary to increase system capacity.

Finding 3-17. System-level studies are an essential element of a wake turbulence research program. They are basic to ensuring that (1) research priorities will be set in a rational manner, (2) the actual realizable benefits of wake turbulence solutions will be known, (3) key constraints can be identified, and (4) NextGen capacity goals can be achieved.

Recommendation 3-12. The current JPDO research in system-level modeling of the air transportation system should be continued and resources should be directed to extending simulation capabilities to cover a range of operational scenarios, weather scenarios, fleet mixes, and airport layouts.

Recommendation 4-1. Wake turbulence research should pursue multiple tracks, with the goal of a robust, stable program that will provide continuing reductions in aircraft spacing as new ideas and technologies are developed and proven.

Recommendation 4-2. Wake vortex research priorities should be periodically reexamined.

Recommendation 4-3. The federal wake turbulence R&D enterprise should continue its relationships with a balanced mix of government laboratories, industry, and academia.

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