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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. NASW-03009 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11379-3

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11379-2

Cover: Shown in this photograph by Steve Morris are the wake vortices generated by a Boeing 767-3Y0/ER aircraft, operated by Virgin Nigeria, as seen on its approach to London Gatwick Airport. Copyright by Reprinted with permission. Cover design by Michael Dudzik of the National Academies Press.

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