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This study was supported by Contract No. NASW-03009 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Cover: Shown in this photograph by Steve Morris are the wake vortices generated by a Boeing 767-3Y0/ER aircraft, operated by Virgin Nigeria, as seen on its approach to London Gatwick Airport. Copyright by AirTeamImages.com. Reprinted with permission. Cover design by Michael Dudzik of the National Academies Press.

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