temperature nuclear fuels and materials; inverse radiation transport methods; advanced reactor design; direct energy conversion; and space nuclear power and propulsion. Dr. Anghaie received a B.S. in physics in 1972 and an M.S. in physics in 1974, both from Pahlavi University, Shiraz, Iran. He received his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1982.

WILLIAM ATWELL is a technical fellow with the Boeing Company and currently supports the AeroThermal Group. Mr. Atwell has 40 years of experience in the areas of the space radiation environment, high-energy particle transport through materials, active and passive dosimetry, spacecraft, satellite, and anatomical modeling/shielding analysis, radiation detection instrumentation, biological and physical effects, and data analyses. He is one of the original members of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Radiation Analysis Group. Recently, his interests and support activities have been in space radiation research projects for NASA, the European Space Agency, and the German Space Agency. He has been on the science teams for the 2001 Mars Odyssey Martian Radiation Environment Experiment and the Boeing Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Phase A study. He provides support to the NGC/Boeing Crew Exploration Vehicle proposal effort and the JSC-requested Radiation Trade studies. Mr. Atwell was a chair of the AIAA Life Science and Systems Technical Committee and is chair of the AIAA Life Sciences and Space Processing Technical Committee and a member of the AIAA Public Policy Technical Committee. Mr. Atwell is the recipient of the Astronaut’s Silver Snoopy Award, Rockwell International Space Systems Division (now Boeing) President’s Award, and numerous NASA, NATO, and AIAA awards and commendations. He received the 2001 Special Space Flight Achievement Award from JSC for his scientific support, modeling efforts, and space radiation analyses of the Phantom Torso Experiment (1998) and the International Space Station Increment 2 (2001). Mr. Atwell has authored more than 200 technical and scientific publications. He has an M.S. and a B.S. in physics/mathematics from Indiana State University and was a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Florida.

BENTON C. CLARK is chief scientist for Space Exploration Systems, Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado, and has more than 40 years of experience in future-mission design, spacecraft design and operations, planetary science, space radiation, and development of advanced space instrumentation. He is the senior member of the Advanced Planetary Studies group, where flight designs for Discovery, New Frontiers, and Mars missions are conceived and developed. Dr. Clark has more than 80 publications and 120 reports, abstracts, and presentations in instrumentation, planetary missions, radiation, space science, planetary geochemistry, exobiology, astrobiology, and other fields of research and development. He has served on numerous advisory panels for NASA, AIAA, and the National Research Council (NRC). He has received the NASA Public Service Medal, the Wright Brothers Award, the Air Force Service Medal, the Rotary International Stellar Award, and the Lockheed Martin Nova Award; he is an inductee to the Aviation and Space Hall of Fame, and has been selected Inventor and Author of the Year for Martin Marietta Corporation. Dr. Clark has a B.S. in physics from the University of Oklahoma, an M.A. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in biophysics from Columbia University.

MARC M. COHEN is a licensed architect who has more than 20 years of experience in space architecture design research and development, specializing in space living, working environments, and human factors. He recently took early retirement from the NASA Ames Research Center to join Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems. Dr. Cohen has an extensive record of accomplishment in developing architectural concepts for space stations, interplanetary vehicles, and lunar and martian surface habitats. He conducts advanced materials research and quantitative modeling of habitat designs. He is an associate fellow of the AIAA, founded the AeroSpace Architecture Subcommittee, and currently chairs the AIAA’s Design Engineering Technical Committee. He has an A.B. from Princeton University, an M.Arch. from Columbia University, and an Arch.D. from the University of Michigan.

PATRICK J. GRIFFIN is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff in the Applied Nuclear Technologies Department at Sandia National Laboratories and was chair of the NRC Panel on Assessment of Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis for Aviation Security. He was named a National Affiliate of the National Academies in recognition of his service to the NRC’s National Materials Advisory Board on several committees. At Sandia National Laboratories, he performs research in the areas of radiation modeling and simulation, neutron-effects

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