4
A Comprehensive Strategy for Workforce Development

The enhancement and sustainment of core competencies require organizational leadership, a comprehensive strategy for workforce development, sustained investment of resources, and a system to measure progress toward workforce development goals. A comprehensive strategy for developing the workforce integrates a range of approaches for recruiting, advancing, and retaining outstanding individuals who can acquire and use core competencies for facilities asset management. Professional enrichment approaches go beyond providing training seminars: They extend to providing opportunities for education through degree programs and online courses, mentoring, professional certification, participation in professional societies, and the acquisition of knowledge through research. Given the negative image of the government as an employer of choice (PPS, 2006), federal organizations will also need to shine a spotlight on the advantages of employment by the federal government and the opportunities it opens up if they are to recruit and retain outstanding professionals.

CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT FOR PROMOTING AND SUSTAINING CORE COMPETENCIES

Identification, development, and sustainment of core competencies for federal facilities asset management require long-term organizational leadership and commitment. Professional development must be valued by the leadership at all levels and aligned with the organization’s mission and functions. It should be an institutionalized part of a talent retention and succession planning system. To make this happen, professional development will need to be assimilated into the



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4 A Comprehensive Strategy for Workforce Development The enhancement and sustainment of core competencies require organiza- tional leadership, a comprehensive strategy for workforce development, sustained investment of resources, and a system to measure progress toward workforce development goals. A comprehensive strategy for developing the workforce integrates a range of approaches for recruiting, advancing, and retaining outstand- ing individuals who can acquire and use core competencies for facilities asset management. Professional enrichment approaches go beyond providing training seminars: They extend to providing opportunities for education through degree programs and online courses, mentoring, professional certification, participation in professional societies, and the acquisition of knowledge through research. Given the negative image of the government as an employer of choice (PPS, 2006), federal organizations will also need to shine a spotlight on the advantages of employment by the federal government and the opportunities it opens up if they are to recruit and retain outstanding professionals. CREATINg AN ENVIRONMENT FOR PROMOTINg AND SUSTAININg CORE COMPETENCIES Identification, development, and sustainment of core competencies for federal facilities asset management require long-term organizational leadership and commitment. Professional development must be valued by the leadership at all levels and aligned with the organization’s mission and functions. It should be an institutionalized part of a talent retention and succession planning system. To make this happen, professional development will need to be assimilated into the 

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 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT organization’s culture, integrated into the performance evaluation system, and supported through the annual budget. The committee’s research into the various approaches to professional devel- opment yielded a set of what are sometimes called “truisms” (Rose and Nicholl, 1997). These truisms, or self-evident truths, can nonetheless serve as guiding principles for promoting an organizational philosophy that embraces professional development: • Every person can learn. • Individuals learn at different rates in different ways. • Learning is a lifelong process. • Every person wants to do a good job. • Self-esteem affects learning; learning enhances self-esteem. • Success promotes other successes. • Education and learning are shared responsibilities. • People are accountable for their own decisions and actions. • Appreciation of individuality and diversity is important; cultural diversity enhances education. • Global awareness and understanding are essential components of education. • Working cooperatively is essential in a competitive world. • The education process requires innovation, risk taking, and the ability to manage change. • Continuous improvement is desirable and possible. • A healthy organization provides access to information. Creating an environment that supports professional development begins with the recognition that (1) an individual does not acquire capabilities in a linear fashion and (2) the skills required of an employee change over a career. Entry- level professionals in facilities asset management divisions often have a degree in a technical field such as architecture or engineering. To advance to higher positions, individuals will need to refine their management and behavioral skills as they advance their technical skills. An embedded challenge to improving and maintaining management skills is that professionals move both laterally—that is, away from their initial discipline—and upward, into the management arena. A professional with a honed set of behavioral and management skills will probably achieve supervisory positions, whereas one who focuses only on techni- cal skills will probably reach a career plateau. To reach the executive level of an organization, an individual typically will need to demonstrate leadership skills and enterprise knowledge (Figure 4.1). Individuals who progress in their careers typically are self-motivated and willing to take the initiative in expanding their knowledge through reading,

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT University Graduates Entry Level Supervisor Executive High Leadership Skills S Enterprise Knowledge K I Management Skills L L Technical Skills S Low Career Development FIGURE 4.1 Changing skill sets for career progression. SOURCE: Badger and Smith (2006). networking, attending courses, and lifefig 4-1 new experience. However, organizations can provide additional support or offer incentives that benefit both the individual and the organization. One study found that “best practice organizations motivate employees as individuals and as groups to meet or exceed accepted levels of per- formance by establishing incentives that encourage effective decision making and reward extraordinary performance” (NRC, 2004, p. 112). Incentives that might be used by federal organizations come in many forms. Some organizations reimburse tuition, which motivates staff to enhance their skills. Tuition reimbursement could be targeted at individuals who pursue degrees in business or public administration. Similarly, tuition for executive or leadership training seminars could be reim- bursed. Such programs can strengthen the skills base while motivating individuals to become more effective facilities asset managers, thereby increasing their value to the organization. Another incentive is allowing an individual time to pursue training during regular business hours as opposed to evenings and weekends. Individuals or teams who exceed performance expectations can be formally rec- ognized. And promotions can be based, in part, on an individual’s acquisition of skills that enhance the organization’s core competencies. ELEMENTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEgY A comprehensive workforce development strategy should use a variety of approaches to recruit personnel to fill skill gaps and to enhance the skills of all staff at all stages of their careers. These approaches will need to be tailored to

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0 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT the types of skills being acquired. For example, gaps in technical or business- related skills can be filled by hiring recent graduates with degrees in architecture, engineering, or business or public administration and then giving them on-the-job training in the fundamentals of facilities asset management. All staff will need to update their technical skills during the course of their careers; without such renewal, their technical proficiency would decline. Business skills, on the other hand, might be strengthened by hiring experienced professionals from private companies, which value individuals who understand financial and risk manage- ment. Or, to acquire leadership skills, a facilities asset management division might hire experienced military engineering officers who have undergone leadership training. Because enterprise knowledge comes from continuous application and learning through a set of experiences that crosses many disciplines, it would be best advanced by leading employees along an in-house career path. Enterprise knowledge reflects a level of talent, experience, and critical analysis that is essen- tial to an organization’s management and leadership. A variety of educational techniques and concepts are available for training and skills development: • Tier-one learning: initial learning/self-learning online with computer support. • Tier-two learning: experience-based, peer-to-peer learning in a classroom setting. • On-the-job training. • In-house classroom training by experts in federal subject matter. • Technology-assisted learning or computer-aided courses. • Training outsourced to professional consultants and specialized organizations. • Intra-/interagency training outsourced to or conducted in collaboration with other agencies. A comprehensive workforce development strategy should coordinate the educational materials and techniques with the type of training and the individu- als being trained. For example, some knowledge can be imparted online from anywhere or at any time. Other training is best conducted in a classroom setting with face-to-face interaction among the participants. Recruiting People with the Appropriate Skills To overcome the negative image of the government as an employer, signifi- cant effort will be required when trying to attract recent graduates or experienced professionals to work in federal facilities asset management divisions. These recruiting efforts will have to highlight all the benefits of public service as well as the opportunities that may not be available in private firms. Examples of such

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT benefits include the government’s health care and pension plans, support for the pursuit of advanced degrees in competency-related fields, the opportunity to work at specialized facilities that have missions such as space exploration or scientific research, the chance to work or travel abroad (in the case of divisions such as the Office of Overseas Building Operations), and the potential for a stable work location (which might appeal to more mature recruits). Perhaps most important, the job descriptions used to advertise openings and to evaluate candidates should be updated to reflect changing core competency requirements. OPM’s classification and job grading standards (OPM, 2002) classify facilities professionals in the GS-1600 group, Equipment, Facilities, and Services. The GS-1600 group includes facilities personnel whose duties are to advise on, manage, or provide instructions and information on the operation, maintenance, and use of equipment, shops, buildings, laundries, printing plants, power plants, cemeteries, or other government facilities, or other work involv- ing services provided predominantly by tradespeople or manual laborers. These oversight personnel need to have technical or managerial knowledge and ability, plus a practical knowledge of trades or manual labor operations. Two facilities-management-related categories of employee are GS-1601, General Facilities and Equipment Series, and GS-1640, Facilities Management Series. These job classifications are broad and cover both managerial work and the supervision of administrative activities related to building operation and mainte- nance. Typical job titles include facility operations specialist, public works manager, or just plain “manager.” These titles do not describe the broader, higher-level quali- fications needed by a facilities asset manager or a senior real property officer. This OPM documentation often serves as the informational basis for attract- ing talent to federal career opportunities. In addition, it provides the basis for the point system that determines a job’s classification and salary level. The descrip- tions must be revised from time to time to reflect new realities and required competencies, so that organizations can recruit people with the necessary skills. Classification and compensation levels may also need to be revised to attract high- quality professionals. A government-wide revision of descriptions will require cooperation among facilities asset management divisions, senior real property officers, chief human capital officers, and the OPM. In the near term, it will be difficult for facilities asset management divisions to hire recent graduates with degrees in facilities asset management, simply because few colleges and universities offer such degrees. Some universities are offering joint management and engineering programs whose graduates earn a master’s degree in engineering and in business administration (NAE, 2004). Others are offering 5-year engineering programs that award both a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree. In addition to hiring university graduates with facilities man- agement and joint degrees, federal organizations will probably need to recruit crossover graduates in architecture, engineering, business, construction, public administration, or law and then train them in the fundamentals of facilities asset

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 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT management. Facilities asset management divisions should always seek to recruit individuals with behaviors that suit them to work in a collaborative, innovative, dynamic environment. Some federal organizations may need to use short-term approaches to fill critical skills gaps. Contracting with federal retirees who have essential technical knowledge of specific types of facilities or systems is one way to do this. Ideally, these contracted experts would be asked to mentor new hires and pass along their knowledge. A federal organization might want to contract with a nongovernmental organization to acquire some financial analyses and services. STRATEgIES FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Because facilities asset management is an evolving profession, asset manage- ment divisions will need to find ways to import ideas, technologies, and research- based knowledge to support their decision making and improve their outcomes. Encouraging their employees to become involved in professional organizations and to pursue professional certifications, mentoring, and acquiring knowledge through research is a good way to do this. Such measures also help individuals to progress in their careers and become more valuable to the organization. On-the-Job Training and Experience An entry-level individual with a bachelor’s degree in a technical area can gain an understanding of facilities asset management and learn how to apply theory to operations through on-the-job training. Developmental assignments have also been used by some federal organizations for enhancing staff skills while also improving organizational processes. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, for example, gives staff the opportunity to work for a week in an area completely different from their own. Such assignments allow managers to “iden- tify good people, free up their time, and use them to help solve departmental problems.” In turn, employees “felt good about being able to learn new skills and also to contribute to solving problems within their work organizations” (Mathys and Thompson, 2006, p. 23). A rotational program for executives allows managers to rotate among divi- sions to allow them to gain experience, enterprise knowledge, and behavioral and leadership skills. Similarly, assigning a facilities asset manager as a deputy to a division executive might be an excellent way for that manager to gain enterprise knowledge quickly. Involvement in Professional Organizations One important component of professional development is joining a profes- sional society, becoming active in one of its peer groups, and attending profes-

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT sional development training along with other senior and intermediate leaders. Such participation would ensure that an “idea transfer model” is in place—that is, that facilities asset management professionals will learn and then transfer new ideas, technologies, and/or research results back to the facilities asset manage- ment division and the larger organization. To satisfy the demands of the private sector, a number of professional organizations have emerged whose members possess a broad array of cross-disciplinary backgrounds, skill sets, management methodologies, and leadership approaches. Federal organizations would do well to take advantage of membership in such organizations to further the professional development of their own workforces. As an example, the Construction Industry Institute (CII) serves as a forum in which managers and executives can identify and collaborate on new ideas, which they take back to their own organizations. CII’s Education Committee has come up with an array of training deliverables (Figure 4.2), including technology-assisted learning, that it hopes to market to professionals who might do well to learn from the relevant experience of CII. Starting at the top and going clockwise, professionals may participate in research project teams, learn from prior CII research, network with other team members, problem-solve, and join ongoing teams. Research summaries and documents for reading and studying are available to individuals. The leadership of the 90 companies and organizations that are members of CII recognizes the FIGURE 4.2 Training modules offered by CII to share its experience. SOURCE: CII (2007).

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 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT educational and professional growth of their respective representatives within the different components of the learning wheel. Professionals who actively engage in research efforts appear to derive the greatest benefit. Other organizations have developed targeted training. For example, APPA has come up with a 4-week leadership course for educational facilities managers. The course has four tracks—individual, interpersonal, managerial, and organiza- tional effectiveness—each of which has a different perspective and is devoted to a different leadership skill (APPA, 2007). Federal managers will need to deter- mine which types of training are best suited to delivering essential skills to their organizations. Certificate Programs Federal executives should also consider using the certification programs of professional organizations to improve the competencies and skills of their facili- ties asset managers. The International Facility Management Association has a well-established Certified Facility Manager program. The certification procedure assesses competency in the field based on work experience and education and the ability to pass a comprehensive examination. The examination tests for core skills and knowledge in planning and project management; real estate; leader- ship and management; finance; technology; operations and maintenance; quality assessment and innovation; human and environmental factors; and communication (IFMA, 2007). To certify their technical skills, engineering graduates must take an engineer- in-training exam (now called the Fundamentals of Engineering exam) and docu- ment 5 years of engineering design experience before becoming a registered Professional Engineer (PE). Each of the 50 states issues a PE license, and many require continuing education courses to maintain the license. Most states have established a code of ethics for their PEs. The American Institute of Contractors has devised an exam and set experi- ence criteria for becoming a Certified Professional Constructor. The Project Management Institute has created a certification procedure for project and pro- gram managers. The Construction Management Association of America has a construction manager certification program with a component specifically for federal employees. As described in Chapter 3, the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) has a training course for federal facilities asset managers, including a module for senior managers. Facilities asset management divisions could form an interagency alliance to develop a government-wide certification program for facilities asset managers using the DAU model as a starting point.

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT Mentoring Mentoring is a relationship in which one person (the mentor) invests time, knowledge, and effort in enhancing the growth, knowledge, and skills of another person (the protégé). Mentoring can occur informally, when two people meet and end up in a work-related relationship, or through formal, structured programs. Formal mentoring programs in federal organizations can be a good means for transferring technical, business, and leadership skills and enterprise knowledge from senior employees to new recruits and should be considered as part of an overall workforce development strategy. A formal mentoring program is designed to achieve specific objectives related to developing and sustaining core competencies—for instance, the transfer of knowledge about facility design, construction, or operations. Mentors are matched with protégés, and each is given a set of well-defined expectations. Mentors are typically expected to invest time, knowledge, and effort; provide positive encouragement, feedback, and reinforcement to the protégé; and identify activi- ties and resources that the protégé can use to increase his or her knowledge of the specified subject area and professional contacts. The protégé is expected to be eager to learn; willing to tackle difficult problems and to persevere in the face of obstacles; work as a team player; and enhance his or her knowledge of the area of expertise. In doing so, the protégé can enhance his or her professional devel- opment and value to the organization. A mentoring program can also be used to enhance the skills base of an individual. By mentoring mid-career and entry-level staff, soon-to-retire senior employees can transfer institutional knowledge about critical systems and processes. Knowledge Acquisition Through Research Research is the cutting edge of any discipline. Research-based knowledge can serve professionals and also those they serve. For the evolving profession of facili- ties asset management, knowledge development must play a significant, extensive role. Knowledge can be gained through a process that can provide a continuous improvement environment for both organizations and individuals. One process by which knowledge can be gained is shown schematically in Figure 4.3. The most immediate, applicable form of knowledge is that which is gained on the job. Leaders of facilities asset management divisions need to be aware of the knowledge that resides in their workforce and aware of where there are knowledge gaps. For example, does the workforce have the capacity to create a facilities asset management plan that incorporates acknowledged best practices? If not, what research-based knowledge is needed to improve those capabilities? If a facilities asset management division does not have adequate in-house resources to conduct research that will improve the knowledge base, it can engage

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 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT FIGURE 4.3 Example of a knowledge development process. an outside source of expertise from a university or a professional society or hire a private consultant for this purpose. Relying on outside expertise to conduct research can provide the independent voice needed for credibility. When research is undertaken federal personnel should be involved in guiding the effort to ensure that it is applicable to the federal operating environment. Their involvement will also benefit the staff’s experiential growth and will increase the chances that the results of a study will be implemented. Involvement often enhances buy-in, pro- motes implementation, and facilitates culture changes. Investment of Dedicated Resources A long-term organizational commitment is needed to create an environment that supports professional development and to optimize the investment of staff time and monetary resources. Private companies recognize that training is neces- sary to maintain an effective executive workforce, and they invest accordingly. Some examples of budget allocations for professional development follow: • Motorola University budgets 3.6 percent of its payroll on training, some $120 million a year. • Saturn Corporation, with its emphasis on shared values, cooperative deci- sion making, and teamwork, expects every employee to undertake 100

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT hours a year of formal education. General Electric places 13,000 employ- ees in a 2-day course in thinking skills and problem-solving. • Fel Pro reimburses employees for tuition costs and pays bonuses to people who earn degrees. • The Arup Partnership allows 10 percent of all employee time to be devoted to continuing education. Executives of the federal government’s Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) identified the core competencies its workforce needs to achieve the organization’s mission. To instill these competencies DFAS is committed to spending 5 percent of its labor budget on training. In 2003, the agency spent about $1,800 per individual for training, or about 4 percent of its total payroll (Mathys and Thompson, 2006). Based on these examples and the committee’s collective experience, a com- prehensive strategy for imbuing an organization’s workforce with the required competencies would cost 2 to 5 percent of the organization’s annual personnel budget. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT One critical element of a workforce development strategy is the establishment of a system to measure progress in developing and sustaining core competencies. A system for monitoring performance can serve as a basis for continuous improve- ment. Indeed, the monitoring process itself often results in better performance. The old adage “what gets measured, gets improved” or, better yet, “what gets measured and reported, gets improved quickly” makes it important to measure the correct things. Organizational performance is tied to mission accomplishment, proper stewardship of the assets, and effective workforce management. Ongoing self- assessment is key for an organization to have an accurate picture of how it is performing. This assessment should ask “Where are we going?” and “Can we get there from here?” The second of these questions is usually where the challenge lies. Answering it requires an in-depth review of skill sets, priorities, and mission alignment. Gaps in the required skill sets could come from insufficient training of the workforce or from the lack of suitable personnel. It is critical to assess priorities, which will probably change over time to reflect new demands on the organization. Federal organizations need to measure the following: • Performance in meeting specific targets, which will vary from organization to organization. • Performance in complying with the strategic plan of the facilities asset management division. Some key performance indicators are customer satisfaction, the maintenance backlog, and financial measures.

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 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT • Progress in developing the required core competencies. • Progress in attracting, hiring, and retaining highly competent professionals. The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 requires federal organizations to establish performance measurement systems for assessing the outcomes of their programs. In the 14 years since this legislation was enacted, performance measurement has become an established process within the federal government. Several performance measurement systems are well known, including the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Program, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). SAM was designed by APPA specifically for facilities management divisions and incorporates elements of the Baldrige program and others of the BSC. Because the BSC is a well-established system that federal organizations are already using, the committee recommends its continued use for measuring progress in developing and sustaining core competencies for federal facilities asset management divisions. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is widely used by business and government even though the goals of business and government are different (Table 4.1). First described in 1990, the BSC is a conceptual framework for evaluating organizational performance. Organizational goals and strategies are translated into objectives, measures, targets, and initiatives. The BSC concept has evolved over time, but the four categories of performance have remained constant: financial outcomes, internal business processes, customer relationships, and learning and TABLE 4.1 Comparing Balanced Scorecards in the Private and Public Sectors Feature Private Sector Public Sector Focus Shareholder value Mission effectiveness Financial goals Profit, market share growth, Cost reduction, efficiency, innovation, creativity accountability to public Efficiency concerns No Yes of clients Desired outcome Customer satisfaction Stakeholder satisfaction Stakeholders Stockholders, bondholders Taxpayers, legislators, inspectors Who defines budget Customer demand Leadership, legislators, funding priorities agencies Key success factors Uniqueness, advanced Sameness, economies of scale, technology standardized technology SOURCE: Mathys and Thompson (2006).

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT growth. The learning and growth category focuses on the organization’s work- force, one resource which enables the achievement of the organization’s goals. “Balanced” refers to several qualities of the scorecard. First, there is balance across the four categories to avoid overemphasizing financial outcomes. Second, it requires both the quantitative and qualitative measurement of outcomes. Third, there is balance in the levels of analysis—from individual and work unit results to organizational outcomes (Heerwagen, 2002; NRC, 2004). Within the four categories of performance, there is an implied alignment from performance-driven staff and an organizational culture reflected in learning and growth to operational efficiency and improvements in customer satisfaction, both of which improve financial outcomes (Mathys and Thompson, 2006). In the private sector, this alignment leads to greater stakeholder value; in the public sec- tor, it leads to mission effectiveness. By design, the BSC provides for cascading goals, objectives, and performance measures, from organizational missions to work units to individuals (FFC, 2004). Performance measures are the link between strategies and operations. Thus a BSC can be used to measure both the performance of a facilities asset management division in supporting the mission of its parent organization and the performance of an individual manager of facilities assets. Figure 4.4 illustrates how the DFAS uses the BSC to link strategy and mea- sures to organizational vision. As shown in Figure 4.4, learning and growth objec- tives might include enhancing employee competencies; increasing employee satis- faction; developing an environment for learning; and enhancing the organization’s ability to recruit and retain employees with the required skills. The indicators of progress in achieving these objectives would appear to be a natural outgrowth of the skills gap analysis. Indicators of progress in closing the gaps could be based on the number of new hires having particular skill sets or the number of vacancies filled. Gaps in the required skill sets could also be closed through professional development and training. Indicators such as the number of hours spent in train- ing to strengthen organizational core competencies, hours devoted to the pursuit of advanced degrees in finance and other areas, or the number of facilities asset managers who received a job-related certification all could be useful for measuring progress in this area. If training and recruitment efforts are effective, they should result in improved internal processes, more customer satisfaction, and greater cost efficiency. Additional indicators for workforce development can be derived from guide- lines of the OPM as part of its Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework (HCAAF). The HCAAF resource center includes guidelines for assessing strategic alignment, leadership, knowledge management, and talent management (OPM, 2007).

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0 CORE COMPETENCIES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES ASSET MANAGEMENT VISION Best Value to Our Customers • World-class provider of • Trusted, innovative • Employer of choice, • One organization, finance and accounting financial partner providing a progressive one identity services and professional work environment GOALS • Embrace continuous • Establish consultative • Ensure everyone • Fully satisfy customer learning for our relationships with is working toward the requirements and workforce to ensure leaders same vision and can aggressively resolve critical, high-quality • Deliver business connect what they are problems to deliver skill sets intelligence to enable doing to make the best-value services • Develop the next better decisions vision a reality • Use performance generation of DFAS metrics to drive best leadership business practices and achieve high-quality results • Optimize the mix of our military, civilian, and contractor workforce OBJECTIVES Financial Customer Growth and Learning Internal • Reduce cost to the • Improve client/ • Enhance employee • Deliver competitive client/customer customer satisfaction competence services • Deliver cost-effective • Increase employee • Develop a quality- system solutions satisfaction focused culture • Develop a climate for action • Enhance ability to retain and recruit DFAS talent MEASURES • Client/customer • Specific billing rates • Employees in • Commencement of satisfaction • Total cost developmental scheduled Business • On-time delivery • Unit cost assignments Case Analysis • Call center satisfaction • Cost to revenue ratio • Employee satisfaction • Accurate delivery • System operating and OAS Index of service capital costs • Number of civilian • Innovative business • System milestones met employees with practices licenses/certifications • Lean deployment • Number of civilian employees with degrees • Climate for action OAS Index FIGURE 4.4 Example of the BSC from the Defense Finance and Accounting Service. SOURCE: Mathys and Thompson (2006). fig 4-4 redrawn

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 A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY FOR WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES Badger, W., and J. Smith. 2006. Great Leadership Skills and Traits: The Faculty’s Secret Enabler. Proceedings of the 2nd Specialty Conference on Leadership and Management in Construction, Grand Bahamas, May 4-6. CII (Construction Industry Institute). 2007. Implementing CII Practices—The Implementation Plan- ning Model: Steps to Success. Austin, Tex.: CII. Heerwagen, J.H. 2002. “A balanced scorecard approach to post-occupancy evaluation: Using the tools of business.” In Learning from Our Buildings: A State of the Practice Summary of Post- Occupancy Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Horey, J. 2004. Technical Report 1148, Competency Based Future Leadership Requirements. Arling- ton, Va.: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. IFMA (International Facility Management Association). 2007. Certified Facility Manager Credentials. Accessed on August 13, 2007, at . Mathys, N.J., and K.R. Thompson. 2006. Using the Balanced Scorecard: Lessons Learned from the U.S. Postal Service and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service. IBM Center for the Busi- ness of Government. Available online at . NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2004. The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004. Investments in Federal Facilities: Asset Management Strategies for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. OPM (Office of Personnel Management). 2002. Handbook of Occupational Groups and Families. Classification and Job Grading Standards. Washington, D.C.: OPM. OPM. 2007. Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework Resource Center. Available at . Accessed May 17, 2007. PPS (Partnership for Public Service). 2006. Back to School: Rethinking Federal Recruiting on College Campuses. Washington, D.C.: Partnership for Public Service. Rose, C., and M.J. Nicholl. 1997. Accelerated Learning for the 21st Century: The Six-Step Plan to Unlock Your Master-Mind. New York, N.Y.: Delacorte Press.