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FIGURE 1.2a System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) indicators internationally for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding only interruptions caused by major storms and hurricanes). SOURCE: EPRI (2003).

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FIGURE 1.2b System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) indicators internationally for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding only interruptions caused by major storms and hurricanes). SOURCE: EPRI (2003).

down for an extended period could cause enormous economic damage, as discussed below.

Terrorists could, under some circumstances, view the transmission and distribution system as an important secondary target.

Terrorist attacks probably would involve physical destruction of key system facilities. However, a combined cyber attack and physical attack could be especially serious, particularly if mounted by someone with detailed knowledge of the electric power system, its physical characteristics, and its vulnerabilities.

Hackers and Other Nonterrorist Individuals and Groups

Terrorist attacks are the main focus of this report, but other types of attackers are also relevant. Not only are lower-level



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