H

R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System

TABLE H.1 Research Area Options Primarily for the Existing Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture


Technology/Operational Strategy Application Research Areas Objectives
Thwart Attack Reduce Vulnerability Reduce Impact

System components that are less vulnerable to incursion, gun shots, or explosive devices

Physically robust towers, insulators, and conductors

Physically robust transformers, breakers, and switchgears

Low-cost undergrounding techniques

 

X

X

X

X

X

 

New techniques for reducing stress by improving operation and maintenance

Integrated asset management

 

 

X

New monitoring and diagnostic techniques to reduce the impact of attacks and improve reliability

Non-intrusive monitoring

Non-destructive evaluation

Low-cost dissolved gas analyzers

X

X

X

Physically protective shields for substations and transformers

Advanced materials for shielding

X

 

 

Recovery equipment (to recover from attacks)

Substation recovery (temporary) transformers

Recovery breakers

 

 

X

X

Advanced protection devices to mitigate outages from attacks

Self-programming power electronic relays

 

X

X

Sensors and communication to increase monitoring, mitigate outages, and enhance response

Wide-area measurement

Dynamic thermal circuit rating

Video sag monitoring

Integrated electricity and communication system architecture

Precision high-speed time-stamped monitoring

Enhanced visualization

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Computational ability to monitor systems, mitigate outages, and better plan restoration

Topology estimating

CAR monitoring

[Truly] real-time analysis

Integrated engineering and economic methodology for power system operation

Market simulation

Fast simulation and modeling

Advanced training simulators

Advanced date storage, management, and incident reconstruction

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 



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OCR for page 142
H R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System TABLE H.1 Research Area Options Primarily for the Existing Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact System components that are Physically robust towers, insulators, and conductors X less vulnerable to incursion, gun Physically robust transformers, breakers, and switchgears X X shots, or explosive devices Low-cost undergrounding techniques X X New techniques for reducing Integrated asset management X stress by improving operation and maintenance New monitoring and diagnostic Non-intrusive monitoring X techniques to reduce the impact Non-destructive evaluation X of attacks and improve reliability Low-cost dissolved gas analyzers X Physically protective shields for Advanced materials for shielding X substations and transformers Recovery equipment (to recover Substation recovery (temporary) transformers X from attacks) Recovery breakers X Advanced protection devices to Self-programming power electronic relays X X mitigate outages from attacks Sensors and communication to Wide-area measurement X X increase monitoring, mitigate Dynamic thermal circuit rating X X outages, and enhance response Video sag monitoring X X Integrated electricity and communication system architecture X X Precision high-speed time-stamped monitoring X X Enhanced visualization X X Computational ability to monitor Topology estimating X systems, mitigate outages, and CAR monitoring X better plan restoration [Truly] real-time analysis X Integrated engineering and economic methodology for power X system operation Market simulation X Fast simulation and modeling X Advanced training simulators X X Advanced date storage, management, and incident reconstruction X 142

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APPENDIX H 143 TABLE H.1 Continued Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact Passive technology to increase Reconfiguring (new bundles, higher voltages, etc.) X X power flow on existing rights High-amperage conductors X X of way to reduce the potential High-temperature superconducting cables X X impact of events Composite structures X X Short-circuit current limiters Power electronics based X X to reduce the possibility of Superconducting X X cascading outages Enhanced control of the existing Reducing the cost of current-generation FACTS devices X X system to reduce vulnerability Voltage-source converters X X and enhance recovery Asynchronous rotating machines X X Advanced systems control X X Developing software that thwarts Hardening energy management systems against cyber attacks X cyber attacks Developing secure firewalls for the variety of intelligent devices, X relays, and controls at substations that can be controlled remotely

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144 TERRORISM AND THE ELECTRIC POWER DELIVERY SYSTEM TABLE H.2 Research Area Options for Enabling New Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact Technologies to enable complete Advanced power electronic devices X X control of the power system to Advanced DC back-to-back X X mitigate outages and enhance Low-cost FACTS X X restoration Power electronic breakers X X Intelligent universal substation transformers X X Multi-layered control strategies X X Distributed autonomous agents X X Integrated control strategies X Complete system automation X X Self-healing topology X X Object models for all digital devices X Technologies to enable smaller Microgrids X X synchronous or DC systems Distributed generation X X to operate in an integrated Renewables X X fashion so as to reduce system DC distribution X vulnerability Electric storage at high-voltage levels X Technologies to greatly increase AC superconducting cables X power flow to reduce stress and DC superconductivity X mitigate outages The IntelliGrid X Innovative computational ability Fast modeling and simulation X technologies Local and global optimization and control algorithms for X X power controllers State estimation and optimization functions between X local systems Optimized system decomposition X X Reconfiguration and protection coordination for X X reliability management Optimization functions incorporating local generation, X X load control, and central generation Advanced market structures to seamlessly incorporate X local systems into overall generation/load/mix TABLE H.3 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Distribution System Architecture Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact Asset management to reduce Integrated asset management X system stress Tighter voltage control X Monitoring of capacitor banks X Increased power flow to reduce Reconfiguring and increasing voltage X stress on the system Superconducting cables X Low-sag conductors X Improved reliability and system Reducing underground construction costs X vulnerability Enhanced control to reduce Power electronics network protectors X X stress and enhance restoration Short-circuit current limiters (medium voltage) X X Tie and feeder circuit reclosers X X Reconfigured network grids in Submersible fast switches X X X large cities Low-voltage switches and smart fuses for reconfiguration and X isolation

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APPENDIX H 145 TABLE H.4 Research Area Options for Enabling New Distribution System Architecture Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact Advanced distribution Advanced DA architecture X X automation (DA) Object models for all digital distribution devices X Fault anticipator X Intelligent universal transformer X Power electronics technologies Inductive (contactless) charging X to manage demand and improve Active harmonic filters X reliability Embedded solutions X Voltage restoration devices X Intelligent universal transformer X High-efficiency DC-DC converters X X Low-voltage and medium-voltage smart power controllers X DC breaker and controllers X Low-cost motor drive controller in chip X Distributed energy resources Integration of distributed energy resources X X AC-DC converters X Distributed generation Photovoltaics X X technologies Concentrating solar X X Solid oxide fuel cell X X PEM fuel cell X X Microturbines X X Stirling engines X X Carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage X High-pressure electrolyzers X On-board fuel reformers X Combined heat and power for residential applications X Radioisotope photovoltaic generator X Thermoelectric generators X X Direct methanol fuel cell X X Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) power sources X X Micro solid-oxide fuel cell X X Electric energy storage devices Lead acid battery X X Nickel-metal hydride battery X X Lithium-ion battery X X Vanadium redox flow battery X X Zinc-bromine flow battery X X Sodium-sulfur battery X X Hydrogen storage X X Flywheel energy storage X Ultracapacitors X X Miniature compressed air energy storage X X Metal air battery X Lithium-ion battery X X Lithium-sulfur battery X X Superconducting magnetic energy storage X X Communication technologies Broadband over power line X X WiMax wireless high-speed communication X X Consumer portal X X Standardized object models X X Power line carrier/wireless for local communication X X Standardized LAN/WAN technology X X Technologies to enhance control Power electronic breakers X X Custom power devices X X

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146 TERRORISM AND THE ELECTRIC POWER DELIVERY SYSTEM TABLE H.5 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Device and Building Systems Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Reduce Application Research Areas Attack Vulnerability Impact High-efficiency lighting systems Photoluminescence material X Daylight harvesting X Integrated lighting X High-intensity discharge X Advanced fluorescent lamp systems X Light-emitting diodes X High-efficiency motors and Soft-switching adjustable speed drives X motor drives Low locked-rotor current single-phase machines X High-efficiency axial air gap motors X New motor designs X High-efficiency space Water loop heat pumps X conditioning Ground-coupled heat pumps X Dual path HVAC systems X High-efficiency water heating Heat pump water heaters X Heat recovery water heaters X High-efficiency refrigeration High COP refrigeration system X Efficiency industrial Infrared heating devices X electrotechnologies Microwave-assisted chemical synthesis X Radio frequency drying and curing X Advanced programmable logic controllers X Ultraviolet curing X Building systems technologies to Smart thermostats X X reduce demand and consumption Building-integrated PV X X Building and process energy management systems X X TABLE H.6 Research Area Options for Enabling New Device and Building Systems Architecture Objectives Technology/Operational Strategy Thwart Reduce Vulner- Application Research Areas Attack ability Reduce Impact Technologies to integrate end-use Consumer portal X X devices and buildings into the Smart appliances and devices X X power delivery system Power quality monitoring X Automated meter reading X Outage monitoring X X Energy management system integration X X Advanced demand response X X Smart meters X X Technologies to enable buildings Low-cost power conditioning X to operate independently Small distributed generation X X Electric storage technologies sized for buildings X X Appliances "hardened" against disturbances X X Solid-state transfer switches X X