Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

S.1 Examples of Options for Minimizing Vulnerability

1.1 Some Worldwide Examples of Cascading Power Failures with Potential or Actual Widespread Impact

2.1 Major Industry Players in the U.S. Electric Industry

8.1 Examples of Critical Social Services That Depend on the Availability of Electric Power

9.1 Promising Research Technologies for Reducing Vulnerability

H.1 Research Area Options Primarily for the Existing Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture

H.2 Research Area Options for Enabling New Bulk Power (Transmission) System Architecture

H.3 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Distribution System Architecture

H.4 Research Area Options for Enabling New Distribution System Architecture

H.5 Research Area Options Primarily for Existing Device and Building Systems

H.6 Research Area Options for Enabling New Device and Building Systems Architecture

FIGURES

1.1a System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) indicators for U.S. utilities for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding major events)

1.1b System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) indicators for U.S. utilities for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding major events)

1.2a System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) indicators internationally for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding only interruptions caused by major storms and hurricanes)

1.2b System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) indicators internationally for the period 1992 to 2001 (excluding only interruptions caused by major storms and hurricanes)

1.3  Relative frequency of electrical outages in the United States between 1984 and 2000

1.4 Frequency of electrical outages in the United States over time

1.5 Annual number of transmission loading relief events since 1997

1.6 Illustrative analogy of electric transmission and distribution

1.7 Simple classification of potential power system attackers

2.1 The NERC regions, along with the interconnection areas



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