4.1 Perceived threats to power system control centers as reported in a survey of electric utilities conducted by EPRI in 2000

4.2 Simplified diagram of the sensing, communication, and control systems associated with a typical power system

4.3 Road map for achieving secure control systems in the energy sector

5.1 Typical power industry employee age distribution

6.1 Protection and control system characteristics

6.2 Power system stability controls

6.3 Modern emergency management system

6.4 Balancing areas

6.5 Reliability coordinators

9.1 Diagrammatic means for estimating potential terrorist attack cost mitigation resulting from investment in R&D

9.2 Alternative ways in which power systems could evolve

9.3 Development path for the perfect power system

9.4 Evolution of possible configurations and relevant nodes of innovation enabling the power system

F.1 One-line diagram of main and transfer bus scheme

F.2 One-line diagram of breaker-and-a-half bus configuration

F.3 One-line diagram for ring bus configuration

F.4 One-line diagram of double breaker-double bus configuration

G.1 Power system stability controls

G.2 August 14, 2003, voltage profile from west to east across northern Ohio

G.3 August 14, 2003, reactive power production and reserves

BOXES

3.1 Security Criteria to Be Considered in Evaluating Substation Security

3.2 Examples of Security Protocols and Mitigation Measures Intended to Provide Protection Against Current Terrorist Threats

3.3 Steps Taken by Most U.S. Utilities to Limit Access to Facilities and Information

3.4 Examples of Technical Physical Security Skills and Practices Being Developed and Implemented by Electric Power Industry Security Personnel

4.1 Addressing Control System Vulnerabilities

8.1 The Pittsburgh Study

9.1 Questionnaire Respondents’ Views on General R&D Needs for the Power Delivery System Needed Specifically to Address Terrorism



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