12 percent were involved in marketing or distribution agreements, 9 percent in customer alliances, and 8 percent in R&D agreements.
One of the key features of SBIR programs is that they support alignments between the private sector, the agencies, and universities. This is true at DoE, as collaboration with academic research groups is common among DoE SBIR companies.
About a quarter of NRC Phase II Survey respondents reported the involvement of faculty or adjunct faculty in their project, 20 percent the involvement of graduate students, 16 percent the use of university or college facilities, and 18 percent use of a university or college as a subcontractor on the project. Five percent of respondents said that the Phase II project was originally developed at that institution by one of the recipients. Three percent reported the PI was an adjunct faculty member.