tions for improving capacity focused on two areas: human resources and institutional infrastructure. Developing either in isolation will not result in sustainable local capacity. Individuals who receive training will be unlikely to remain in their home institutions if those institutions lack the resources for research. At the same time, institutions need skilled individuals to put to use the resources that institutions can provide. Workshop participants examined a number of possibilities for improving research capacity along both of these avenues.

Opportunities for advanced research training should include a menu of flexible options. Researchers of different skill levels, or at different points in their careers, with access to varying resources or differing degrees of flexibility in their schedules and commitments, could then avail themselves of the appropriate option. Among the approaches to training discussed were brief workshops focused on a single skill (such as a particular coding technique or writing grant proposals), visiting-scholar programs, extended summer training programs, supplemental or partial graduate training programs, and formal graduate degree programs.

Oscar Barbarin (now at the University of North Carolina) explained and reflected on his experience leading the University of Michigan’s South Africa Initiative Office. One notable project was the Moody Scholars Program for South African faculty who were simultaneously working as lecturers and completing the Ph.D. at their home institutions. The program provided stipend and travel expenses to permit young faculty members to spend the summer at the University of Michigan, devoting their time to writing their dissertation. The summer was chosen because affordable housing, computer facilities, and office space were more readily available then. Each year two or three scholars spent their time doing library research, consulting with senior scholars, and participating in a structured research seminar along with University of Michigan graduate students. This opportunity proved critical to the South African scholars’ completion of their dissertations and to their careers.

The Quantitative Program for South African Scholars, also carried out at the University of Michigan, provides another training model. This program brought 20 South African scholars, selected from groups historically underrepresented among researchers, to participate in short-term courses offered through the Institute for Social Research. The scholars participating in this Mellon Foundation-supported program were at the University of Michigan for three consecutive summers. They enrolled in statistics courses with increasing levels of difficulty and also participated in a weekly inte-



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