Benchmarking the Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering Basic Research

Panel on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Benchmarking the Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering Basic Research Panel on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu ii

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CTS-0534814. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11426-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11426-8 Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org v

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Panel on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Mechanical Engineering WARD O. WINER, Chair, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CRISTINA H. AMON, University of Toronto, Canada L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina JOHN R. HOWELL, University of Texas, Austin MARSHALL G. JONES, GE Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, New York CHANG-JIN KIM, University of California, Los Angeles KEMPER E. LEWIS, University at Buffalo-State University of New York, Buffalo VAN C. MOW, Columbia University, New York J. TINSLEY ODEN, University of Texas, Austin MASAYOSHI TOMIZUKA, University of California, Berkeley National Research Council Staff ALBERT EPSHTEYN, Christine Mirzayan Graduate Fellow (January-March 2007) TINA MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ERICKA MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer KELA MASTERS, Project Assistant JESSICA PULLEN, Research Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Program Officer MARTA VORNBROCK, Research Associate DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY F. FLEMING CRIM (Co-Chair), University of Wisconsin, Madison GARY S. CALABRESE (Co-Chair), Rohm & Haas, W. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania BENJAMIN ANDERSON, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RYAN R. DIRXX, Arkema, Inc., Bristol, Pennsylvania GEORGE W. FLYNN, Columbia University, New York MAURICIO FUTRAN, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, New Jersey MARY GALVIN-DONOGHUE, Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania PAULA T. HAMMOND, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RIGOBERTO HERNANDEZ, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JAY D. KEASLING, University of California, Berkeley JAMES L. KINSEY, Rice University, Houston, Texas MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan JOSEPH A. MILLER, Corning, Inc., Corning, New York SCOTT J. MILLER, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut GERALD V. POJE, Independent Consultant, Vienna, Virginia DONALD PROSNITZ, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California THOMAS H. UPTON, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Houston, Texas National Research Council Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director KATHRYN HUGHES, Postdoctoral Fellow TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer KELA MASTERS, Project Assistant ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate JESSICA L. PULLEN, Research Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Program Officer vi

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dr. Nadine Aubry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Dr. John M. Campbell, Sr., (Retired President and CEO, Campbell Companies), Norman, OK Dr. Susan Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Dr. Iwona M Jasiuk, University of Illinois, Urbana Dr. Nobuhide Kasagi, University of Tokyo, Japan Dr. John H. Lienhard V, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Dr. Lee A. Matsch, AlliedSignal Inc. (retired), Tempe, Arizona Dr. C. Dan Mote, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Ms. Susan Skemp, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia Dr. Venkataramani Sumantran, Sumantran Consulting, Chennai, India Dr. A. Galip Ulsoy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Sean Wu, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by Dr. Maxine Savitz, Retired General Manager of Technology and Partnerships, Honeywell Inc, and Dr. C. Bradley Moore, Northwestern University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii

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Preface At the request of the National Science Foundation Engineering Directorate, the National Academies performed an international benchmarking exercise to determine the standing of the U.S. research enterprise in the field of mechanical engineering relative to its international peers. This of course was no trivial undertaking, even for the panel of mechanical engineers assembled—11 members, mostly from U.S. universities, with expertise across the 11 selected areas of mechanical engineering covered in the report (see Chapter 1): acoustics and dynamics, bioengineering, computational mechanics, design and computer-aided design, dynamic systems and controls, energy systems, manufacturing and computer-aided manufacturing, mechanics of engineering materials, microelectromechanical systems and nanoelectromechanical systems, thermal systems and heat transfer, and tribology. The panel was charged with addressing three specific questions: 1. What is the current position of U.S. mechanical engineering research relative to that of other regions or countries? 2. What key factors influence U.S. performance in mechanical engineering? 3. On the basis of current trends in the United States and abroad, what will be the relative U.S. position in the near term and in the longer term? At the same time, the panel was instructed to perform its charge in a short time frame and with a limited budget. Thus, in order to adequately respond to its charge, the panel had to limit the scope of the exercise to assessing the state of mechanical engineering basic research as determined by the open research literature, the opinions of its peers, and easily accessible data on U.S. human resources and research funding. Based on this slice of information, this benchmarking exercise attempts to provide a “snapshot” of the current status of the discipline and to extrapolate the future status based on current trends. The report does not make judgments about the relative importance of leadership in each area nor make recommendations on actions to be taken to ensure such leadership in the future. Ward O. Winer, Chair Panel on International Benchmarking of Mechanical Engineering Research ix

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Contents Summary 1 1. Introduction 7 Key Characteristics of Mechanical Engineering Basic Research , 7 Role of Mechanical Engineering Basic Research in the U.S. Economy, 7 Mechanical Engineering Defined for This Report, 8 Study Caveats, 10 Organization of This Report, 10 2. Current U.S. Leadership Position in Mechanical Engineering Basic Research 13 Journal Articles and Citations, 13 Virtual World Congress, 23 Mechanical Engineering Area Assessments, 24 Summary, 37 3. Key Factors Influencing U.S. Leadership in Mechanical Engineering Basic Research 39 Centers, Facilities, and Instrumentation, 39 Human Resources, 44 R&D Funding, 57 Summary, 70 4. The Likely Future Position of U.S. Mechanical Engineering Basic Research 73 Mechanical Engineering Research Publications, 73 Supply of U.S. Mechanical Engineers, 74 U.S. Mechanical Engineering Research Funding, 76 Infrastructure to Support Basic Research, 78 Summary, 79 Appendixes A. Statement of Task 81 B. Panel Biographical Information 83 C. Journal Analysis 87 D. Virtual World Congress 97 xi

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