This is a summary of key steps or stages of project development, rather than a “how-to” manual. Many fine references exist on the practical issues of ASR, surface infiltration, and artificial recharge in general. Pyne (2005) discusses in detail the building blocks of an ASR program, including feasibility studies, pilot testing, well design and equipment, plugging issues, and water quality challenges. Brown (2005) does an excellent job of summarizing existing frameworks for both brackish and freshwater ASR projects. He presents a much more detailed framework than the one used in this chapter, including flow charts for the various steps.
The Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI, 2001) offers another useful and practical guidebook. The Water Environment Federation and the AWWA (1998) provide an overview of planning indirect potable reuse, health and regulatory considerations, treatment technologies, system reliability, and public information outreach programs. Segalen et al. (2005) give a fine summary on that topic.
Several recent scientific meeting proceedings are an excellent source for case studies; notable among these are those of the forth and fifth International Symposia on Management of Aquifer Recharge (Dillon, 2002; UNESCO, 2006) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Artificial Recharge Workshop Proceedings (Aiken and Kuniansky, 2002). Finally, Ruetten (2001) deals in depth with public perception issues.
As noted above, there are many different ways to organize an MUS project from beginning to end. The following list is modified only slightly from EWRI/ASCE (2001) Standard Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Ground Water:
Phase I: Preliminary activities (also called feasibility evaluation), including data collection; assessment of regulatory, legal, political, and economic feasibility; and conceptual planning; this phase may also involve environmental assessment and public involvement
Phase II: Field investigations and testing of pilot sites
Phase III: Design (revision of the conceptual design to reflect results of investigations)
Phase IV: Construction and start-up (systems may require cycle testing to develop recharge systems)
Phase V: Operation and maintenance
Phase VI: Project review and adaptive management
Phase VII: Closure