Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 277
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Acronyms and Glossary Abiotic Refers to chemical transformations that occur without the aid of microorganisms. Acre-foot A traditional measure of water applied, used in the United States. The volume of water required to cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to 1.23 ML or 1,230 m3.. Adsorption The adherence of ions or molecules in solution to the surface of solids. Advanced wastewater treatment Any physical, chemical or biological treatment process used to accomplish a degree of treatment greater than that achieved by secondary treatment. Advection The process whereby solutes are transported by the bulk mass of flowing fluid. AL Elastic wave propagation log. Anisotropy The condition under which an aquifer property varies with the direction of measurement. For example “If the hydraulic conductivity, K, varies with the direction of measurement at a point in a geologic formation, the formation is anisotropic at that point.” (Freeze and Cherry, p. 32) Anoxic Describes an environment without oxygen. Aquifer A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable material to yield significant quantifies of water to wells and springs. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) Injection of water into a well for storage and recovery from the same well.
OCR for page 278
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) Injection of water into a well for storage and Recovery from a different well, generally to provide additional water treatment. Artificial recharge (AR) Intentional banking and treatment of water in aquifers. Artificial Recharge and Recovery (ARR) Recharge to and recovery of water from an aquifer, that is, both artificial recharge of the aquifer and recovery of the water for subsequent use. AT Acoustic televiewer. Augmentation pond Water body designed to supply water to river systems at defined rates during particular times. Bank filtration Extraction of groundwater from a well or caisson near or under a river or lake to induce infiltration from the surface water body, thereby improving and making more consistent the quality of water recovered. Base flow That portion of a stream’s flow derived from ground water (as opposed to surface runoff and interflow). Basin (1) Hydrology: The area drained by a river and its tributaries. (2) Irrigation: A level plot or field, surrounded by dikes, which may be flood irrigated. (3) Runoff control: A catchment constructed to contain and slow runoff to permit the settling and collection of soil material transported by overland and rill runoff flows Basins and watersheds Areas of drainage in which all collected water ultimately drains through a single exit point. Basins differ from watersheds only in the perception of their size: basins are usually considered to be much larger, composed of many watersheds. Within a watershed or basin, water moves both on and below the surface. Topographic “highs” prevent surface water from crossing from one watershed (aquifer) to another.
OCR for page 279
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Biodegradation The biologically mediated conversion of a compound to simpler products. Bioremediation Exploiting the metabolic activity of microorganisms to transform or destroy contaminants. Carbonate A rock formed primarily from carbonate minerals, such as limestone and dolomite. CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program. Chlorinated solvent One that contains at least one chlorine atom. Typically, these compounds are used to dissolve substances that do not dissolve easily in water. Because they are used for a wide variety of purposes—from manufacturing, to degreasing, to dry cleaning—chlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants. Colloid A particle that has a diameter in the range of 10−8 to 10−5m. The small size of colloids tends to keep them in suspension for long periods. Complexation A reaction in which a metal ion and one or more anionic ligands chemically bond. Complexes often prevent the precipitation of metals. Confined aquifer An aquifer bounded above and below by units of distinctly lower hydraulic conductivity in which the pore water pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure. An unconfined aquifer is not bounded above and is the uppermost aquifer. Conjunctive use Combining the use of both surface and groundwater to minimize the undesirable physical, environmental, and economic effects of each. Consumptive Use Use of water that renders it no longer available because it has been evaporated, transpired by plants, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by people or livestock, or otherwise removed from water supplies.
OCR for page 280
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water CSMAT Controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric Cumulative recovery efficiency Ratio of the cumulative volume of freshwater injected minus the volume of unrecovered fresh water divided by the cumulative volume fresh water injected. CZ Confinement zone. Darcy's Law A formula used to describe fluid flow in the subsurface. The law states that the velocity of flow through a porous medium is directly proportional to the hydraulic gradient (assuming that the flow is laminar and inertial forces can be neglected). Denitrification The conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas by microorganisms. Denitrification can be an important process in the subsurface, because when oxygen is absent, denitrifying bacteria can use nitrate to degrade hazardous compounds in the same way that they would ordinarily use oxygen. Density The mass per unit volume of a substance. Desorption The release of sorbed molecules from solid into solution (the reverse of sorption). Diffusion Contaminant movement caused by the random motion of molecules. Contaminants diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Disinfection by-products A range of organic and inorganic products resulting from the reaction of disinfecting oxidants with natural aquatic organic material reductants in water systems. The number and nature of all products are not precisely known at present, and vary with type of disinfectant employed. Some of the chlorination by-products are mutagenic and some are suspected animal carcinogens. Dispersion The spreading and mixing of chemical constituents in groundwater. Dispersion is caused by diffusion and mixing due to microscopic variations
OCR for page 281
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water in velocities within and between pores as well as by macroscopic velocity variations among zones of differing hydraulic conductivity. Dissolution The process by which solid- or nonaqueous-phase liquid components of a contaminant dissolve in infiltration water and form a groundwater contaminant plume. The duration of remediation measures (either cleanup or long-term containment) is determined by the rate of dissolution that can be achieved in the field and the mass of soluble contaminants. DOC Dissolved organic carbon. Drawdown Lowering of the water table or potentiometric surface as a result of pumping. Dry well Synonymous with vadose zone well. Enteric viruses Members of a large group of viruses characterized by the fact that they replicate in the intestinal tract and are therefore present in fecal material. EPMA Electron probe microanalysis. ERT Earth resistivity tomography. Evapotranspiration The sum of evaporation and transpiration from a unit land area. Also see consumptive use. Fractured media Large subsurface rocks or clay formations that are mostly solid but contain cracks that can transmit or store water. GGL-D Gamma-gamma log. GPR Ground-penetrating radar. GR Gamma-ray log. Groundwater That part of the subsurface water that is in the saturated zone.
OCR for page 282
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Ground water overdraft (or mining) The withdrawal of groundwater through wells, resulting in a lowering of the ground water table at a rate faster than the rate at which the ground water table can be recharged. GWR Groundwater replenishment. Halogenated compound A compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a halogen atom, such as fluorine, chlorine, or bromine. Examples include chlorinated solvents (such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene), which have been widely used in cleaning and degreasing operations in some fumigant pesticides. Many halogenated compounds are DNAPLs. Head The pressure of a fluid on a given area, at a given point caused by the height of the fluid surface above the point. Also, water-level elevation in a well, or elevation to which the water of a flowing artesian well will rise in a pipe extended high enough to stop the flow. Heterogeneity Pertaining to an aquifer, variation in the value of one (or more) measurable properties in space. A synonym is nonuniform. Homogeneity Refers to subsurface media that are relatively uniform. Humic substance A macromolecular organic substance formed from the decomposition of plant or animal material. Hydraulic barrier A barrier to flow caused by system hydraulics, such as a line of ground water discharge caused by extraction wells. Hydraulic conductivity (K) The coefficient of proportionality between the flow rate (specific discharge) of water through a permeable medium in response to a hydraulic gradient. The density and kinematic viscosity of the water affect the hydraulic conductivity. It has dimensions of L/T. K is a function of both the
OCR for page 283
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water permeable medium and the fluid moving through it. It is related to the intrinsic permeability (k): where ρ represents the fluid density and μ represents the dynamic viscosity. Hydraulic gradient Difference in hydraulic head between two points divided by the distance between the points. HFO Hydrous ferrous oxide. Hydrophilic “Water loving”; refers to compounds that are highly water soluble. Hydrophobic “Water fearing“; refers to substances that are relatively insoluble in water. Igneous rock A rock that solidified from molten material. "Igneous" is one of the three categories (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) into which all rocks are divided. Infiltration The flow of water downward from the land surface into and through the upper soil layers. Infiltration Basin Synonymous with recharge basin. Infiltration rate Generally, the rate at which a soil under specified conditions can absorb falling rain or melting snow; in recharge, the rate at which water drains into the ground when a recharge basin is flooded, expressed as of water per unit time. Injection well Well used for emplacing fluids into the subsurface. Intrinsic permeability A measure of the relative ease with which a porous medium can transmit a liquid under a potential gradient. Intrinsic permeability is a property of the medium and is dependent on the shape and size of the openings through which the liquid moves.
OCR for page 284
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Ion A molecule that has a positive or negative electric charge. Ion exchange The exchange of ions between a solution and a solid while maintaining charge balance. Through ion exchange, charged molecules that are naturally part of the subsurface soil may be replaced by contaminant molecules. Irrigation The application of water to soil for crop production or for turf, shrubbery, or wildlife food and habitat. Intended to provide water requirements of plants not satisfied by rainfall. Leakance The ratio of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) to the thickness of the confining unit or aquitard. Lithology A description of the rocks beneath the ground at a site. LL Conductively focused-current logs. Managed (or management of) Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Intentional banking and treatment of water in aquifers (synonymous with AR). MUS may be considered a subset within MAR. Maximum contaminant level (MCL) The maximum amount of a compound allowed in drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act. MCLs are set by considering both health effects of the compound and technical feasibility of removing the compound from the water supply. Maximum contaminant levels goal (MCLG) Nonenforceable health goal established under the Safe Drinking Water Act intended to protect against known and anticipated adverse human health effects with an adequate margin of safety. Technical feasibility is not considered in setting MCLGs. Method detection limit The constituent concentration that, when processed through a complete method, produces a signal with a 99 percent probability that it is different from a blank.
OCR for page 285
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Metamorphic rock A rock created from preexisting rocks in response to changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, or chemical environment. MLL Micro-focused logs. Monitoring well A tube or pipe, open to the atmosphere at the top and to water at the bottom, used for taking groundwater samples. MUS Managed Underground Storage. NGW Native groundwater. NNL Neutron log. Numerical model A model whose solution must be approximated by varying the values of controlling parameters and using computers to solve approximate forms of the model's governing equations. Oxidation reaction The transfer of electrons away from one compound to another.. Oxidation reactions are important in the destruction of contaminants. They may occur spontaneously when the appropriate chemicals are mixed, or they may be catalyzed by microorganisms. For example, when microbes degrade organic compounds, they may transfer electrons away from the compound, converting the compound to carbon dioxide and deriving energy from the electron transfer process. Pathogen A disease-causing microorganism. Permeability The coefficient of proportionality between the flow rate (specific discharge) of a fluid through a permeable medium in response to the hydraulic gradient (driving force); k is a characteristic solely of the medium. The dimensions of k are L2. The relation to hydraulic conductivity is given in Hydraulic conductivity.
OCR for page 286
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Phreatophyte A deep-rooted plant that obtains its water from the water table or the layer of soil just above it. Plume A zone containing predominantly dissolved contaminants and sorbed contaminants in equilibrium with the dissolved contaminants. A plume usually will originate from the contaminant source areas and extend downgradient for some distance, depending on site hydrogeologic and chemical conditions. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) A type of contaminant built from two benzene rings and chlorine atoms. PCBs are very stable, resisting both chemical and biological degradation, and are toxic to many species. At one time, they were used commonly in electrical transformers as heat insulators. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) A compound built from two or more benzene rings. Sources of PAHs include fossil fuels and incomplete combustion of organic matter (in auto engines, incinerators, and even forest fires). Pore A small space between the grains of sand, soil, or rock in the subsurface. Groundwater is stored and transmitted in pores. Porosity The ratio of the volume of void spaces (Vv) contained within a volume of rock, sediment, or soil, to the total volume Vt (rock, sediment or soil particle volume + void space volume) (porosity = Vv/Vt). The effective porosity represents voids spaces through which water or other fluids flow in a rock or sediment. It excludes isolated or dead-end pores and the volume within pores occupied by water adsorbed on minerals. Primary porosity is the space between grains created when a rock or sediment was formed. Secondary porosity is caused by fracture or weathering in a rock or sediment after it has been formed. Porous medium A subsurface zone composed of small rocks or sand particles with pores that can transmit or store water.
OCR for page 287
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Potable reuse, direct Occurs when there is a piped connection of water reclaimed from wastewater to a potable water supply distribution system or a water treatment plant. Potable reuse, indirect Planned indirect potable reuse occurs when wastewater effluent is discharged to a water source with the intent of subsequently reusing the water rather than as a means of disposal. Unplanned indirect potable reuse occurs when a water supply is withdrawn for potable purposes from a natural surface or underground water source that is fed in part by the discharge of a wastewater effluent. The wastewater effluent is discharged to the water source as a means of disposal and subsequent reuse of the effluent is a byproduct of the disposal plan. Potable water Water that has been treated to be or is naturally suitable for drinking. Potentiometric surface The height of rise of the water due to hydrostatic pressure when the constraint of the confining layer is removed. Sometimes referred to as the piezometric surface. Prior Appropriation A concept in water law under which a right is determined by such a procedure as having the earliest priority date. QA/QC Quality assurance/quality control. ORE Operational recovery efficiency. Recharge area (groundwater) An area in which water infiltrates the ground and reaches the zone of saturation. Recharge basin (or pond) A surface facility, often a large pond, used to increase the infiltration of surface water into a groundwater basin. Basins require the presence of permeable soils or sediments at or near the land surface and an unconfined aquifer beneath.
OCR for page 288
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Recharge The replenishment of water beneath the earth's surface, usually through percolation through soils or connection to surface water bodies. Recharge Well A well used to recharge water directly to either a confined or an unconfined aquifer. Reclaimed water Wastewater made fit for reuse for potable or nonpotable purposes. Redox potential The distribution of oxidized and reduced species in a solution at equilibrium. Redox potential is important for predicting the likelihood that metals will precipitate from ground water upon pumping, for estimating the capacity of microorganisms Reduction reaction The transfer of electrons to one compound from another (also see Oxidation reaction). Oxidation-reduction reactions are important in the destruction of contaminants. They may occur spontaneously, when the appropriate chemicals are combined, or they may be catalyzed by microorganisms. For example, when microbes degrade organic compounds, they may transfer electrons from the compound to oxygen, converting the oxygen to water. Residence time The average amount of time a fluid spends during transport through a unit volume of subsurface or a laboratory vessel. Retardation The movement of a solute through a geologic medium at a velocity lower than that of the groundwater. Retardation is caused by sorption and other phenomena that separate a fraction of the solute mass from the bulk groundwater. Reverse osmosis A highly efficient removal process for inorganic ions, salts, some organic compounds, and in some designs, microbiological contaminants. Reverse osmosis resembles the membrane filtration process in that it involves the application of a high feed water pressure to force water through semipermeable membrane. In osmotic processes,
OCR for page 289
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water water spontaneously passes through semipermeable membrane from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution in order to equilibrate concentrations. Reverse osmosis is produced by exerting enough pressure on a concentrated solution to reverse this flow and push the water from the concentrated solution to the more dilute one. The result is clear permeate water and a brackish reject concentrate. Reynolds number Expressed as follows: R = ρvd/μ Where ρ is the density of water (mass/volume), v is the specific discharge (length/time), d is a representative grain diameter for the porous media (often taken as the 30% passing size from a grain size analysis using sieves - units of length), and μ is the dynamic viscosity of the water (mass/(length x time). Runoff That part of the precipitation that moves from the land to surface water bodies. RW recharged water. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) The law, passed in 1974, that required the setting of standards to protect the public from exposure to contaminants in drinking water. Salinization To become impregnated with salt; concentration of dissolved salts in water or soil water. An environmental impact of irrigation that can be managed but not eliminated. Saturated zone That part of the earth's crust beneath the regional water table in which all voids, large and small, are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. Secondary porosity The porosity developed in a rock formation after its deposition or emplacement, either through natural processes of dissolution or stress distortion, or artificially through acidization or the mechanical injection of coarse sand
OCR for page 290
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Sedimentary rock A rock created from the consolidation of loose sediment that has accumulated in layers. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) Treated sewage effluent, known as reclaimed water, is intermittently infiltrated through infiltration ponds to facilitate nutrient and pathogen removal during passage through the unsaturated zone for recovery by wells after residence in the aquifer. Sorption A process that removes solutes from the fluid phase and concentrates them on the solid phase of a medium. SP Spontaneous potential. Specific capacity An expression of the productivity of a well. Obtained by dividing the rate of discharge of water from the well by the drawdown of the water level in the well. It has dimensions of L3/T−L. It should be described on the basis of the number of hours of pumping prior to the time the drawdown measurement is made. Specific storage The volume of water that a unit volume of porous medium releases from storage under a unit decline in hydraulic head (Freeze and Cherry) (while it still remains fully saturated). It has dimensions of inverse length, [L−1]. It describes storage in confined aquifers. Specific yield The term used to describe storage in unconfined aquifers. ‘It is defined as the volume of water that an unconfined aquifer releases from storage per unit surface area of aquifer per unit decline in the water table’ (Freeze and Cherry, p. 61). Spreading basin Synonymous with Recharge basin. Storativity The product of specific storage and aquifer thickness, defines the volume of water released from storage per unit decline in hydraulic head in the aquifer, per unit surface area of the aquifer
OCR for page 291
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Stormwater runoff Water resulting from precipitation which either infiltrates into the ground, impounds/puddles, or runs freely from the surface, or is captured by storm drainage, a combined sewer, and to a limited degree, by sanitary sewer facilities. Sulfate reduction The conversion of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide by microorganisms. Because they can degrade hazardous compounds without using oxygen, sulfate-reducing bacteria can be important players in the subsurface, where the oxygen supply is often limited. Surface spreading Recharging water at the surface through recharge basins, ponds, pits, trenches, constructed wetlands, or other systems. Surface tension The tension at the surface between a liquid and its own vapor. Surficial aquifer An aquifer that is near the earth's surface, in the most recent of geologic deposits. SW Source water. TDEM Time-domain electromagnetic. TDS Total dissolved solids. Tertiary treatment The treatment of wastewater beyond the secondary or biological stage. The term normally implies the removal of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and of a high percentage of suspended solids. It is now commonly replaced by the term “advanced waste treatment.” TM Temperature log. TOC Total organic carbon. Transmissivity The rate at which water is transmitted through a unit width of an aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient. In a confined aquifer, it is equal to the product of the hydraulic conductivity and the aq-
OCR for page 292
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water uifer thickness. It is a function of properties of the liquid, the porous media, as well as the permeability and thickness of the aquifer. It provides a measure of capability of the entire thickness of an aquifer to transmit water. TSV Target storage volume. TW Transitional water. UIC Underground Injection Control. Unconfined aquifer See confined aquifer. Underground storage and recovery (USR) Similar to MUS; any type of project whose purpose is the artificial recharge, underground storage, and recovery of project water. Unsaturated zone The zone between the land surface and the regional water table. Generally, water in this zone is under less than atmospheric pressure, and some of the voids may contain air or other gases at atmospheric pressure. Beneath flooded areas or in perched water bodies the water pressure locally may be greater than atmospheric. Vadose zone See unsaturated zone. Vadose zone well A well constructed in the interval between the land surface and the top of the static water level and designed to optimize infiltration of water. Volatile organic compound (VOC) An organic chemical that volatilizes (evaporates) relatively easily when exposed to air. Wastewater Water that carries waste from homes, businesses, and industries; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. Water quality The chemical, physical, and biological condition of water related to a beneficial use. Water resource The supply of ground- and surface water in a given area.
OCR for page 293
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water Water table The “top” of the subsurface zone that is saturated with groundwater. More precisely, it is the surface in an aquifer at which pore water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. Water Withdrawal Water removed from ground or surface water sources for use. Watershed A geographic region (area of land) within which precipitation drains into a particular river, drainage system or body of water that has one specific delivery point. Water-table aquifer An aquifer in which the water table forms the upper boundary. WTP Wastewater Treatment Plant. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arizona Department of Water Resources. 2001. Underground Storage and Recovery Regulations, State of New Mexico., Available online at http://www.ose.state.nm.us/doing-business/ground-water-regs/ground-water-regs.html. de Marsily, G. 1986. Quantitative Hydrogeology. Burlington, MA: Academic Press. Dillon, P. 2005. Future management of aquifer recharge. Hydrogeology Journal 13:313–316. DOI 10.1007/s10040-004-0413-6. Fetter, C. W. 2001. Applied Hydrogeology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Freeze, R. A., and J. A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. New York: Prentice-Hall Lohman, S. W., et al. 1972 Definitions of Selected Ground-Water Terms—Revisions and Conceptual Refinements, U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 1988. Municipal Water District of Orange County. 1994. Available on-line at http://www.mwdoc.com/glossary.htm; NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 1996. A New Era for Irrigation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 1997. Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
OCR for page 294
Prospects for Managed Underground Storage Recoverable Water NRC. 1998. Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Well Abandonment Handbook. Available on-line at http://www.azwater.gov/dwr/Content/Find_by_Program/Wells/WellAbandonmentHandbook5.pdf. WRIA Watershed Management Project., Available online at http://www.wria1project .wsu.edu/watershedplan/WMP_Master_Glossary.pdf.