Appendix C
Glossary

Agent-like organisms: Organisms having physiological, physical, and chemical properties similar to those of a corresponding biological warfare agent while presenting a reduced risk of infection. Agent-like organisms are most often derived from a vaccine or attenuated strain of a biological warfare agent or a nonviable or an inactive form of a biological warfare agent.

Backscatter: the laser radiation returned, or scattered back, to a lidar system after an interaction with an aerosol particle or a molecule at a distance.

Biological warfare agent: a microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) that causes disease in humans, plants, or animals or that causes the deterioration of material (NATO 1996). There are six classes: bacteria, fungi, rickettsiae, chlamydia, viruses, and toxins.

Elastic scattering: interaction of laser radiation with molecular or particulate matter in which the incident radiation is redirected by the molecular or particulate matter. Elastic scattering changes only the direction of the radiation; its energy and therefore wavelength are conserved.

Extinction: the sum of scattering and absorption.

Inelastic scattering: interaction of laser radiation with molecular or particulate matter in which the incident radiation is absorbed and reradiated by the molecular or particulate matter. Inelastic scattering shifts the wavelength of the radiation.

Operational test and evaluation: The field test, under realistic conditions, of an item (or a key component) of weapons, equipment, or munitions for the purpose of determining the effectiveness and suitability of the weapons, equipment, or munitions for use in combat by typical military users, and the evaluation of the results of such tests.

Plume: a cohesive collection of particles released to the atmosphere.

Referee system: system used to characterize an aerosol plume at a higher fidelity than the system under test. Referee system is sometimes referred to as a ground truth system.

Scattering: multiple reflection of electromagnetic radiation by gases or particles in the atmosphere (Sabins 1978). Scattering can be categorized as elastic or inelastic.



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Appendix C Glossary Agent-like organisms: Organisms having physiological, physical, and chemical properties similar to those of a corresponding biological warfare agent while presenting a reduced risk of infection. Agent-like organisms are most often derived from a vaccine or attenuated strain of a biological warfare agent or a nonviable or an inactive form of a biological warfare agent. Backscatter: the laser radiation returned, or scattered back, to a lidar system after an interaction with an aerosol particle or a molecule at a distance. Biological warfare agent: a microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) that causes disease in humans, plants, or animals or that causes the deterioration of material (NATO 1996). There are six classes: bacteria, fungi, rickettsiae, chlamydia, viruses, and toxins. Elastic scattering: interaction of laser radiation with molecular or particulate matter in which the incident radiation is redirected by the molecular or particulate matter. Elastic scattering changes only the direction of the radiation; its energy and therefore wavelength are conserved. Extinction: the sum of scattering and absorption. Inelastic scattering: interaction of laser radiation with molecular or particulate matter in which the incident radiation is absorbed and reradiated by the molecular or particulate matter. Inelastic scattering shifts the wavelength of the radiation. Operational test and evaluation: The field test, under realistic conditions, of an item (or a key component) of weapons, equipment, or munitions for the purpose of determining the effectiveness and suitability of the weapons, equipment, or munitions for use in combat by typical military users, and the evaluation of the results of such tests. Plume: a cohesive collection of particles released to the atmosphere. Referee system: system used to characterize an aerosol plume at a higher fidelity than the system under test. Referee system is sometimes referred to as a ground truth system. Scattering: multiple reflection of electromagnetic radiation by gases or particles in the atmosphere (Sabins 1978). Scattering can be categorized as elastic or inelastic. 21

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Simulants: Nonpathogenic or nontoxic warfare agent surrogates that provide useful evaluative information on the performance of a biological detection system and can sometimes be directly correlated with the biological warfare agent being simulated. Standoff detection: Detection at a distance away from the aerosol/plume or detector system (Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense 2004). Surrogate: an organism or material that serves as a substitute for biological warfare agent. 22